Mean State

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Period Mean (original grids) [g m-2 d-1]
Bias [g m-2 d-1]
RMSE [g m-2 d-1]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 1.81
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 2.16 0.344 1.49 0.596 0.718 0.481 0.959 0.660
CanESM5 [-] 1.88 0.0681 1.07 0.681 0.754 0.593 0.951 0.723
CESM2 [-] 2.32 0.512 1.70 0.556 0.664 0.483 0.953 0.646
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 1.31 -0.507 1.36 0.215 0.651 0.551 0.989 0.686
MeanCMIP6 [-] 2.04 0.232 1.06 0.344 0.760 0.600 0.978 0.735
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 2.84 1.02 2.00 0.595 0.489 0.475 0.961 0.600
NorESM2-LM [-] 2.26 0.443 1.62 0.344 0.642 0.489 0.970 0.647
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 2.41 0.597 1.51 0.215 0.623 0.525 0.986 0.665
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Period Mean (original grids) [g m-2 d-1]
Bias [g m-2 d-1]
RMSE [g m-2 d-1]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 2.71
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 2.56 -0.141 1.84 1.10 0.581 0.430 0.856 0.574
CanESM5 [-] 3.30 0.592 2.04 0.884 0.532 0.458 0.899 0.587
CESM2 [-] 2.32 -0.385 2.02 0.838 0.542 0.411 0.911 0.569
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 2.18 -0.545 1.88 0.907 0.512 0.459 0.864 0.573
MeanCMIP6 [-] 2.53 -0.184 1.59 0.743 0.597 0.484 0.913 0.620
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 2.64 -0.0732 2.04 1.40 0.518 0.439 0.796 0.548
NorESM2-LM [-] 2.33 -0.384 1.98 0.982 0.514 0.418 0.885 0.559
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 2.44 -0.260 2.01 1.12 0.540 0.404 0.857 0.551
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [g m-2 d-1]
Bias [g m-2 d-1]
RMSE [g m-2 d-1]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 1.92
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 1.20 -0.719 1.76 1.46 0.373 0.382 0.835 0.493
CanESM5 [-] 3.29 1.37 2.39 1.12 0.331 0.347 0.907 0.483
CESM2 [-] 0.969 -0.952 1.77 1.35 0.344 0.351 0.846 0.473
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 1.07 -0.854 1.89 2.37 0.338 0.373 0.679 0.441
MeanCMIP6 [-] 1.27 -0.654 1.49 1.24 0.490 0.401 0.870 0.540
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 0.808 -1.11 2.08 2.38 0.225 0.370 0.602 0.392
NorESM2-LM [-] 0.982 -0.939 1.85 1.91 0.341 0.335 0.786 0.450
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 0.583 -1.34 2.07 2.14 0.289 0.333 0.733 0.422
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [g m-2 d-1]
Bias [g m-2 d-1]
RMSE [g m-2 d-1]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 0.866
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 1.27 0.404 1.16 2.34 0.533 0.297 0.667 0.448
CanESM5 [-] 1.99 1.12 1.52 0.440 0.433 0.375 0.971 0.538
CESM2 [-] 1.20 0.338 1.24 1.60 0.642 0.207 0.789 0.461
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 2.38 1.51 1.72 0.440 0.356 0.311 0.971 0.487
MeanCMIP6 [-] 1.39 0.522 1.02 0.874 0.634 0.371 0.944 0.580
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 0.413 -0.452 1.31 4.50 0.260 0.336 0.145 0.269
NorESM2-LM [-] 1.39 0.523 1.34 2.04 0.427 0.242 0.691 0.400
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 0.601 -0.265 1.01 3.64 0.514 0.337 0.380 0.392
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [g m-2 d-1]
Bias [g m-2 d-1]
RMSE [g m-2 d-1]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 2.79
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 2.94 0.150 1.85 0.519 0.662 0.464 0.958 0.637
CanESM5 [-] 3.61 0.819 2.06 0.621 0.570 0.499 0.934 0.625
CESM2 [-] 2.21 -0.573 1.70 0.633 0.660 0.486 0.949 0.645
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 1.99 -0.796 1.86 0.548 0.568 0.506 0.951 0.633
MeanCMIP6 [-] 2.73 -0.0596 1.49 0.504 0.702 0.536 0.958 0.683
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 2.66 -0.130 1.77 0.519 0.633 0.497 0.953 0.645
NorESM2-LM [-] 2.31 -0.483 1.72 0.633 0.642 0.486 0.949 0.641
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 2.85 0.0626 1.93 0.848 0.631 0.453 0.917 0.613
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [g m-2 d-1]
Bias [g m-2 d-1]
RMSE [g m-2 d-1]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 6.56
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 7.66 1.10 2.92 2.55 0.496 0.388 0.691 0.491
CanESM5 [-] 7.69 1.13 2.69 1.53 0.501 0.441 0.811 0.548
CESM2 [-] 7.47 0.907 2.90 1.53 0.466 0.371 0.811 0.505
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 6.00 -0.565 2.75 1.53 0.358 0.391 0.823 0.490
MeanCMIP6 [-] 5.94 -0.621 2.62 1.53 0.358 0.424 0.867 0.518
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 8.15 1.59 3.05 2.55 0.595 0.376 0.485 0.458
NorESM2-LM [-] 7.95 1.38 2.85 1.53 0.550 0.409 0.671 0.510
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 8.36 1.79 3.30 1.53 0.645 0.352 0.823 0.543
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [g m-2 d-1]
Bias [g m-2 d-1]
RMSE [g m-2 d-1]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 4.46
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 3.37 -1.09 2.80 2.11 0.395 0.365 0.653 0.444
CanESM5 [-] 5.13 0.669 3.40 1.24 0.320 0.398 0.819 0.484
CESM2 [-] 4.78 0.321 3.53 1.16 0.326 0.340 0.844 0.462
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 4.83 0.372 2.72 2.06 0.394 0.377 0.621 0.442
MeanCMIP6 [-] 4.31 -0.153 2.48 1.43 0.431 0.405 0.792 0.508
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 4.17 -0.290 2.66 2.20 0.440 0.387 0.588 0.451
NorESM2-LM [-] 4.83 0.368 3.36 1.58 0.259 0.352 0.791 0.439
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 4.25 -0.246 3.70 1.55 0.348 0.263 0.767 0.411
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [g m-2 d-1]
Bias [g m-2 d-1]
RMSE [g m-2 d-1]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 0.578
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 0.243 -0.336 0.596 2.40 0.603 0.464 0.749 0.570
CanESM5 [-] 0.294 -0.284 0.629 1.40 0.561 0.458 0.863 0.585
CESM2 [-] 0.610 0.0322 1.13 0.771 0.436 0.280 0.932 0.482
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 0.432 -0.236 0.679 0.517 0.641 0.472 0.969 0.638
MeanCMIP6 [-] 0.417 -0.162 0.655 0.517 0.608 0.435 0.966 0.611
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 0.485 -0.0936 0.719 3.67 0.492 0.413 0.523 0.461
NorESM2-LM [-] 0.530 -0.0485 0.982 1.89 0.477 0.293 0.757 0.455
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 0.265 -0.314 0.657 2.27 0.588 0.435 0.757 0.554
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [g m-2 d-1]
Bias [g m-2 d-1]
RMSE [g m-2 d-1]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 2.81
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 2.44 -0.333 1.84 1.28 0.583 0.424 0.847 0.570
CanESM5 [-] 3.23 0.421 2.07 1.13 0.572 0.427 0.892 0.580
CESM2 [-] 1.98 -0.828 2.21 0.890 0.513 0.366 0.909 0.538
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 2.01 -0.794 1.91 1.05 0.508 0.444 0.878 0.569
MeanCMIP6 [-] 2.31 -0.493 1.74 0.842 0.554 0.457 0.914 0.596
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 2.59 -0.215 2.35 1.67 0.471 0.407 0.762 0.512
NorESM2-LM [-] 1.85 -0.955 2.12 1.04 0.492 0.377 0.879 0.531
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 1.95 -0.857 1.94 1.12 0.531 0.403 0.836 0.543

Temporally integrated period mean

BENCHMARK MEAN
Data not available
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MODEL MEAN
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BIAS
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BIAS SCORE
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RMSE
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RMSE SCORE
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BENCHMARK MAX MONTH
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MODEL MAX MONTH
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DIFFERENCE IN MAX MONTH
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SEASONAL CYCLE SCORE
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Spatially integrated regional mean

MODEL COLORS
Data not available
REGIONAL MEAN
Data not available
ANNUAL CYCLE
Data not available
MONTHLY ANOMALY
Data not available
ANNUAL CYCLE
Data not available

All Models

Benchmark
Data not available
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BCC-CSM2-MR
Data not available
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CanESM5
Data not available
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CESM2
Data not available
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IPSL-CM6A-LR
Data not available
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MeanCMIP6
Data not available
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MIROC-ESM2L
Data not available
Data not available
NorESM2-LM
Data not available
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UKESM1-0-LL
Data not available
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Data Information

  Title:
FluxNet Tower eddy covariance measurements (Tier 1)

  Version:
2015

  Institutions:
FluxNet, AmeriFlux, AfriFlux, AsiaFlux, ChinaFlux, Fluxnet-Canada, KoFlux, CarboAfrica, CarboEuropeIP, CarboItaly, CarboMont, GreenGrass, OzFlux-TERN, LBA, NECC, ICOS, TCOS-Siberia, and USCCC

  References:
Reichstein, M., D. Papale, R. Valentini, M. Aubinet, C. Bernhofer, A. Knohl, T. Laurila, A. Lindroth, E. Moors, K. Pilegaard, and G. Seufert (2007), Determinants of terrestrialecosystem carbon balance inferred from European eddy covarianceflux sites, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L01402, doi:10.1029/2006GL027880

Lasslop, G., M. Reichstein, D. Papale, A.D. Richardson, A. Arneth, A. Barr, P. Stoy, and G. Wohlfahrt (2010), Separation of net ecosystem exchange into assimilation and respiration using a light response curve approach: critical issues and global evaluation, Global Change Biology, 16, 187-208, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.02041.x

Knauer, J., S. Zaehle, B.E. Medlyn, M. Reichstein, C.A. Williams, M. Migliavacca, M.G. De Kauwe, C. Werner, C. Keitel, P. Kolari, J.-M. Limousin, and M.-L. Linderson (2018), Towards physiologically meaningful water use efficiency estimates from eddy covariance data, Global Change Biology, 24(2), 694-710, doi:10.1111/gcb.13893

  Comment:
Fluxnet variable(s) used: RECO_DT_VUT_REF