Mean State

Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [g m-2 d-1]
Bias [g m-2 d-1]
RMSE [g m-2 d-1]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 2.13
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 2.08 -0.0467 1.52 0.506 0.758 0.550 0.961 0.705
CanESM5 [-] 1.92 -0.208 1.55 0.938 0.764 0.541 0.921 0.692
CESM2 [-] 2.46 0.330 1.94 0.467 0.722 0.513 0.966 0.678
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 1.43 -0.703 1.85 0.257 0.652 0.526 0.970 0.669
MeanCMIP6 [-] 2.15 0.0209 1.36 0.0847 0.780 0.595 0.992 0.741
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 2.97 0.838 2.63 0.972 0.633 0.404 0.934 0.594
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 1.93 -0.196 1.55 0.467 0.737 0.564 0.968 0.708
NorESM2-LM [-] 2.37 0.244 1.84 0.551 0.714 0.523 0.958 0.680
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 2.51 0.383 1.80 0.0424 0.713 0.533 0.997 0.694
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [g m-2 d-1]
Bias [g m-2 d-1]
RMSE [g m-2 d-1]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 3.35
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 2.62 -0.719 2.66 1.16 0.587 0.430 0.880 0.582
CanESM5 [-] 3.33 -0.0208 2.75 1.22 0.624 0.434 0.850 0.586
CESM2 [-] 2.50 -0.838 2.83 1.07 0.537 0.448 0.880 0.578
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 2.41 -0.955 2.80 1.13 0.542 0.445 0.867 0.575
MeanCMIP6 [-] 2.69 -0.662 2.30 0.915 0.622 0.502 0.880 0.627
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 2.93 -0.423 2.89 1.62 0.559 0.440 0.807 0.561
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 2.99 -0.241 2.81 1.03 0.624 0.417 0.875 0.583
NorESM2-LM [-] 2.51 -0.841 2.76 1.17 0.540 0.456 0.867 0.580
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 2.58 -0.761 2.79 1.13 0.554 0.429 0.878 0.573
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [g m-2 d-1]
Bias [g m-2 d-1]
RMSE [g m-2 d-1]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 1.92
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 1.22 -0.699 2.09 1.57 0.535 0.344 0.860 0.521
CanESM5 [-] 3.28 1.36 2.90 1.45 0.549 0.284 0.905 0.505
CESM2 [-] 1.03 -0.891 2.25 1.57 0.394 0.356 0.850 0.489
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 1.14 -0.779 2.52 2.92 0.426 0.297 0.653 0.418
MeanCMIP6 [-] 1.23 -0.697 2.02 1.68 0.490 0.390 0.837 0.527
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 0.781 -1.14 2.48 2.80 0.435 0.393 0.476 0.424
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 0.530 -1.46 2.41 1.58 0.403 0.355 0.805 0.480
NorESM2-LM [-] 1.02 -0.906 2.27 1.90 0.393 0.348 0.819 0.477
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 0.602 -1.32 2.39 2.58 0.476 0.320 0.562 0.419
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [g m-2 d-1]
Bias [g m-2 d-1]
RMSE [g m-2 d-1]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 0.999
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 1.31 0.310 1.78 3.21 0.626 0.266 0.564 0.430
CanESM5 [-] 1.98 0.977 2.06 2.19 0.556 0.299 0.736 0.472
CESM2 [-] 1.28 0.281 1.91 2.92 0.653 0.202 0.610 0.417
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 2.55 1.55 2.49 1.75 0.322 0.215 0.846 0.399
MeanCMIP6 [-] 1.47 0.470 1.52 2.48 0.539 0.345 0.705 0.483
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 0.373 -0.627 1.62 4.36 0.299 0.360 0.180 0.300
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 2.01 1.01 2.38 3.06 0.563 0.120 0.572 0.344
NorESM2-LM [-] 1.45 0.448 1.93 2.48 0.433 0.264 0.705 0.416
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 0.629 -0.370 1.52 3.79 0.446 0.300 0.447 0.373
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [g m-2 d-1]
Bias [g m-2 d-1]
RMSE [g m-2 d-1]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 3.75
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 3.04 -0.709 2.76 0.645 0.672 0.486 0.951 0.649
CanESM5 [-] 3.67 -0.0808 2.79 0.878 0.702 0.489 0.890 0.642
CESM2 [-] 2.46 -1.29 2.69 0.588 0.618 0.536 0.960 0.663
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 2.28 -1.47 2.94 0.746 0.570 0.516 0.937 0.635
MeanCMIP6 [-] 3.00 -0.753 2.25 0.431 0.708 0.571 0.959 0.702
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 3.08 -0.675 2.81 0.961 0.633 0.518 0.906 0.644
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 3.65 -0.0660 2.79 0.632 0.705 0.482 0.936 0.651
NorESM2-LM [-] 2.56 -1.19 2.65 0.703 0.620 0.539 0.949 0.662
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 3.03 -0.719 2.71 0.617 0.631 0.525 0.950 0.658
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [g m-2 d-1]
Bias [g m-2 d-1]
RMSE [g m-2 d-1]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 6.58
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 8.18 1.60 2.60 2.55 0.494 0.446 0.625 0.503
CanESM5 [-] 7.71 1.13 2.31 1.53 0.604 0.418 0.849 0.572
CESM2 [-] 7.61 1.02 2.77 3.57 0.633 0.341 0.369 0.421
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 6.26 -0.324 2.04 1.53 0.727 0.395 0.774 0.572
MeanCMIP6 [-] 5.81 -0.769 1.88 2.55 0.748 0.443 0.625 0.565
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 8.52 1.94 3.05 2.55 0.427 0.378 0.552 0.434
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 8.74 2.15 3.07 1.53 0.391 0.422 0.829 0.516
NorESM2-LM [-] 8.05 1.47 2.76 2.55 0.521 0.355 0.552 0.446
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 8.51 1.92 2.79 1.53 0.430 0.439 0.774 0.521
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [g m-2 d-1]
Bias [g m-2 d-1]
RMSE [g m-2 d-1]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 4.95
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 3.50 -1.44 3.44 2.26 0.312 0.280 0.709 0.395
CanESM5 [-] 5.20 0.254 3.37 2.20 0.357 0.313 0.631 0.403
CESM2 [-] 4.95 0.0514 3.54 1.81 0.303 0.312 0.669 0.399
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 5.01 0.0675 2.92 2.40 0.440 0.304 0.658 0.426
MeanCMIP6 [-] 4.36 -0.583 2.53 2.16 0.442 0.384 0.637 0.461
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 4.32 -0.622 3.02 1.87 0.372 0.341 0.708 0.441
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 4.16 -0.570 3.45 2.19 0.427 0.232 0.599 0.373
NorESM2-LM [-] 4.98 0.0348 3.24 2.16 0.335 0.354 0.606 0.412
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 4.33 -0.601 3.98 1.92 0.370 0.189 0.733 0.370
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [g m-2 d-1]
Bias [g m-2 d-1]
RMSE [g m-2 d-1]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 0.797
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 0.209 -0.588 1.18 2.39 0.606 0.430 0.752 0.554
CanESM5 [-] 0.295 -0.502 1.26 1.89 0.644 0.400 0.875 0.580
CESM2 [-] 0.622 -0.176 1.73 3.14 0.538 0.309 0.674 0.457
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 0.451 -0.521 1.37 0.514 0.701 0.417 0.971 0.626
MeanCMIP6 [-] 0.425 -0.373 1.19 0.127 0.673 0.421 0.990 0.626
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 0.489 -0.308 1.43 3.90 0.671 0.330 0.573 0.476
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 0.490 -0.308 1.25 1.27 0.664 0.398 0.870 0.583
NorESM2-LM [-] 0.523 -0.274 1.51 3.27 0.598 0.326 0.646 0.474
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 0.273 -0.524 1.23 2.52 0.622 0.420 0.746 0.552
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [g m-2 d-1]
Bias [g m-2 d-1]
RMSE [g m-2 d-1]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 3.47
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 2.49 -0.947 3.04 1.23 0.583 0.414 0.887 0.575
CanESM5 [-] 3.21 -0.257 3.16 1.21 0.632 0.419 0.888 0.590
CESM2 [-] 2.17 -1.30 3.40 1.07 0.503 0.412 0.905 0.558
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 2.30 -1.17 3.22 1.19 0.532 0.429 0.878 0.567
MeanCMIP6 [-] 2.48 -0.991 2.88 1.11 0.570 0.472 0.896 0.603
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 2.96 -0.511 3.39 1.82 0.563 0.413 0.772 0.540
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 2.83 -0.438 3.44 1.05 0.606 0.385 0.908 0.571
NorESM2-LM [-] 2.05 -1.42 3.35 1.11 0.512 0.412 0.904 0.560
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 2.11 -1.36 3.22 1.26 0.521 0.410 0.876 0.554

Temporally integrated period mean

BENCHMARK MEAN
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MODEL MEAN
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BIAS
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BIAS SCORE
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RMSE
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RMSE SCORE
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BENCHMARK MAX MONTH
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MODEL MAX MONTH
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DIFFERENCE IN MAX MONTH
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SEASONAL CYCLE SCORE
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Spatially integrated regional mean

MODEL COLORS
Data not available
REGIONAL MEAN
Data not available
ANNUAL CYCLE
Data not available
MONTHLY ANOMALY
Data not available
ANNUAL CYCLE
Data not available

All Models

Benchmark
Data not available
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BCC-CSM2-MR
Data not available
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CanESM5
Data not available
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CESM2
Data not available
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IPSL-CM6A-LR
Data not available
Data not available
MeanCMIP6
Data not available
Data not available
MIROC-ESM2L
Data not available
Data not available
MPI-ESM1.2-HR
Data not available
Data not available
NorESM2-LM
Data not available
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UKESM1-0-LL
Data not available
Data not available

Data Information

  Title:
FluxNet Tower eddy covariance measurements (Tier 1)

  Version:
2015

  Institutions:
FluxNet, AmeriFlux, AfriFlux, AsiaFlux, ChinaFlux, Fluxnet-Canada, KoFlux, CarboAfrica, CarboEuropeIP, CarboItaly, CarboMont, GreenGrass, OzFlux-TERN, LBA, NECC, ICOS, TCOS-Siberia, and USCCC

  References:
Reichstein, M., D. Papale, R. Valentini, M. Aubinet, C. Bernhofer, A. Knohl, T. Laurila, A. Lindroth, E. Moors, K. Pilegaard, and G. Seufert (2007), Determinants of terrestrialecosystem carbon balance inferred from European eddy covarianceflux sites, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L01402, doi:10.1029/2006GL027880

Lasslop, G., M. Reichstein, D. Papale, A.D. Richardson, A. Arneth, A. Barr, P. Stoy, and G. Wohlfahrt (2010), Separation of net ecosystem exchange into assimilation and respiration using a light response curve approach: critical issues and global evaluation, Global Change Biology, 16, 187-208, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.02041.x

Knauer, J., S. Zaehle, B.E. Medlyn, M. Reichstein, C.A. Williams, M. Migliavacca, M.G. De Kauwe, C. Werner, C. Keitel, P. Kolari, J.-M. Limousin, and M.-L. Linderson (2018), Towards physiologically meaningful water use efficiency estimates from eddy covariance data, Global Change Biology, 24(2), 694-710, doi:10.1111/gcb.13893

  Comment:
Fluxnet variable(s) used: GPP_DT_VUT_REF