Mean State

Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [mm d-1]
Bias [mm d-1]
RMSE [mm d-1]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 1.28
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 1.72 0.448 1.33 0.981 0.715 0.336 0.876 0.566
CanESM5 [-] 1.86 0.582 1.58 0.641 0.625 0.301 0.954 0.545
CESM2 [-] 1.76 0.484 1.37 1.15 0.681 0.340 0.859 0.555
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 2.09 0.810 1.61 0.684 0.533 0.316 0.951 0.529
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 2.11 0.832 1.68 1.03 0.551 0.299 0.871 0.505
MeanCMIP6 [-] 1.89 0.609 1.12 0.768 0.631 0.453 0.915 0.613
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 2.23 0.950 1.56 1.20 0.518 0.339 0.827 0.506
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 1.90 0.619 1.51 0.769 0.610 0.311 0.919 0.538
NorESM2-LM [-] 1.66 0.379 1.19 0.897 0.690 0.383 0.891 0.587
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 1.85 0.573 1.36 0.812 0.652 0.330 0.914 0.557
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [mm d-1]
Bias [mm d-1]
RMSE [mm d-1]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 2.16
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 2.21 0.0404 2.24 1.82 0.682 0.307 0.718 0.504
CanESM5 [-] 2.21 0.0425 2.29 1.66 0.646 0.310 0.731 0.499
CESM2 [-] 2.26 0.0978 2.18 1.77 0.694 0.311 0.724 0.510
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 2.58 0.420 2.25 1.47 0.655 0.316 0.772 0.515
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 2.84 0.674 2.65 1.81 0.611 0.293 0.715 0.478
MeanCMIP6 [-] 2.39 0.228 1.78 1.70 0.690 0.402 0.730 0.556
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 2.63 0.466 2.15 1.78 0.684 0.321 0.720 0.511
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 2.35 0.182 2.34 1.64 0.623 0.305 0.742 0.494
NorESM2-LM [-] 2.20 0.0338 2.23 2.06 0.676 0.307 0.660 0.487
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 2.24 0.0761 2.26 2.02 0.688 0.293 0.667 0.485
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [mm d-1]
Bias [mm d-1]
RMSE [mm d-1]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 0.914
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 1.07 0.154 1.48 1.80 0.704 0.319 0.783 0.531
CanESM5 [-] 1.22 0.301 1.74 1.12 0.640 0.296 0.887 0.530
CESM2 [-] 1.05 0.136 1.28 1.34 0.691 0.358 0.844 0.563
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 0.945 0.0306 1.39 1.12 0.770 0.306 0.895 0.569
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 1.20 0.289 1.50 1.80 0.737 0.305 0.745 0.523
MeanCMIP6 [-] 1.01 0.0919 1.02 1.80 0.776 0.433 0.806 0.612
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 1.38 0.463 1.38 2.14 0.677 0.316 0.727 0.509
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 0.528 -0.386 1.14 2.36 0.689 0.397 0.677 0.540
NorESM2-LM [-] 1.11 0.191 1.74 1.46 0.634 0.293 0.820 0.510
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 0.902 -0.0121 1.47 1.46 0.836 0.295 0.817 0.561
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [mm d-1]
Bias [mm d-1]
RMSE [mm d-1]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 1.07
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 1.30 0.237 1.62 4.66 0.843 0.288 0.168 0.397
CanESM5 [-] 1.19 0.123 1.97 1.75 0.850 0.248 0.811 0.540
CESM2 [-] 1.14 0.0757 1.51 2.89 0.899 0.304 0.560 0.517
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 1.36 0.293 1.81 1.03 0.780 0.244 0.921 0.547
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 2.12 1.05 2.50 1.45 0.517 0.193 0.797 0.425
MeanCMIP6 [-] 1.42 0.352 1.42 1.31 0.752 0.350 0.861 0.579
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 1.33 0.269 1.66 2.34 0.782 0.283 0.600 0.487
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 1.37 0.304 2.05 1.46 0.599 0.236 0.794 0.466
NorESM2-LM [-] 1.63 0.564 2.37 2.18 0.664 0.188 0.687 0.432
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 0.918 -0.147 1.36 1.45 0.864 0.342 0.797 0.586
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [mm d-1]
Bias [mm d-1]
RMSE [mm d-1]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 2.38
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 2.57 0.191 2.12 2.26 0.712 0.284 0.641 0.480
CanESM5 [-] 2.76 0.374 2.30 2.29 0.641 0.262 0.629 0.449
CESM2 [-] 2.52 0.134 2.08 2.49 0.702 0.282 0.562 0.457
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 3.19 0.810 2.22 1.87 0.602 0.292 0.685 0.468
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 3.29 0.912 2.72 2.38 0.565 0.249 0.587 0.412
MeanCMIP6 [-] 2.85 0.468 1.79 2.26 0.662 0.367 0.613 0.502
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 2.86 0.478 2.11 2.37 0.682 0.286 0.611 0.467
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 3.14 0.760 2.49 1.99 0.585 0.246 0.665 0.436
NorESM2-LM [-] 2.47 0.0855 2.12 2.46 0.705 0.280 0.574 0.460
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 2.64 0.260 2.30 2.66 0.689 0.245 0.556 0.434
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [mm d-1]
Bias [mm d-1]
RMSE [mm d-1]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 6.24
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 3.01 -3.24 4.76 3.05 0.468 0.424 0.498 0.453
CanESM5 [-] 3.40 -2.84 5.32 5.10 0.513 0.369 0.0631 0.329
CESM2 [-] 9.75 3.51 7.01 3.05 0.439 0.258 0.498 0.363
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 4.87 -1.37 4.34 1.02 0.725 0.382 0.933 0.605
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 6.00 -0.244 3.37 2.03 0.945 0.452 0.749 0.650
MeanCMIP6 [-] 5.64 -0.601 3.06 3.05 0.869 0.492 0.498 0.587
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 6.77 0.528 3.30 5.10 0.883 0.463 0.0631 0.468
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 5.74 -0.501 3.28 3.05 0.890 0.465 0.498 0.579
NorESM2-LM [-] 7.57 1.33 5.45 4.08 0.732 0.297 0.244 0.392
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 7.60 1.35 4.68 3.05 0.728 0.359 0.498 0.486
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [mm d-1]
Bias [mm d-1]
RMSE [mm d-1]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 4.12
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 3.60 -0.525 4.65 1.15 0.671 0.323 0.843 0.540
CanESM5 [-] 3.81 -0.316 4.05 1.15 0.695 0.389 0.853 0.581
CESM2 [-] 3.87 -0.256 3.84 0.919 0.740 0.382 0.886 0.597
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 3.77 -0.349 3.79 0.873 0.700 0.388 0.881 0.589
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 4.80 0.677 3.96 1.24 0.708 0.394 0.855 0.588
MeanCMIP6 [-] 3.78 -0.345 3.02 1.06 0.746 0.471 0.871 0.640
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 4.58 0.461 3.79 1.25 0.752 0.387 0.865 0.598
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 2.73 -1.39 4.06 0.914 0.604 0.392 0.887 0.569
NorESM2-LM [-] 3.90 -0.225 4.24 1.15 0.682 0.342 0.862 0.557
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 3.54 -0.578 4.18 1.34 0.665 0.363 0.770 0.540
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [mm d-1]
Bias [mm d-1]
RMSE [mm d-1]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 0.553
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 1.01 0.462 0.925 1.27 0.438 0.278 0.690 0.421
CanESM5 [-] 1.11 0.556 0.962 1.15 0.520 0.243 0.813 0.455
CESM2 [-] 1.33 0.773 1.22 1.15 0.337 0.200 0.891 0.407
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 1.17 0.616 0.980 1.27 0.407 0.258 0.707 0.407
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 2.05 1.49 2.10 1.53 0.149 0.0923 0.693 0.257
MeanCMIP6 [-] 1.26 0.704 0.900 1.27 0.348 0.351 0.722 0.443
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 1.17 0.616 1.00 1.02 0.499 0.253 0.881 0.472
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 1.01 0.454 0.952 1.91 0.538 0.238 0.611 0.406
NorESM2-LM [-] 1.17 0.613 1.02 1.40 0.485 0.242 0.676 0.411
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 1.20 0.643 1.12 1.79 0.463 0.222 0.774 0.420
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [mm d-1]
Bias [mm d-1]
RMSE [mm d-1]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 1.97
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 1.88 -0.0889 2.14 1.64 0.660 0.311 0.744 0.507
CanESM5 [-] 1.53 -0.438 2.12 1.54 0.633 0.323 0.778 0.514
CESM2 [-] 1.80 -0.164 2.20 1.42 0.677 0.300 0.819 0.524
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 2.15 0.187 2.27 1.72 0.711 0.298 0.734 0.510
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 2.27 0.304 2.73 1.77 0.597 0.276 0.741 0.473
MeanCMIP6 [-] 1.94 -0.0230 1.81 1.71 0.687 0.381 0.751 0.550
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 2.23 0.263 2.13 1.39 0.665 0.306 0.810 0.522
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 1.91 -0.0621 2.24 1.72 0.666 0.307 0.723 0.501
NorESM2-LM [-] 1.70 -0.265 2.18 2.49 0.636 0.310 0.602 0.465
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 1.79 -0.177 2.17 2.14 0.695 0.294 0.683 0.492

Temporally integrated period mean

BENCHMARK MEAN
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MODEL MEAN
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BIAS
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BIAS SCORE
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RMSE
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RMSE SCORE
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BENCHMARK MAX MONTH
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MODEL MAX MONTH
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DIFFERENCE IN MAX MONTH
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SEASONAL CYCLE SCORE
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Spatially integrated regional mean

MODEL COLORS
Data not available
REGIONAL MEAN
Data not available
ANNUAL CYCLE
Data not available
MONTHLY ANOMALY
Data not available
ANNUAL CYCLE
Data not available

All Models

Benchmark
Data not available
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BCC-CSM2-MR
Data not available
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CanESM5
Data not available
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CESM2
Data not available
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GFDL-ESM4
Data not available
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IPSL-CM6A-LR
Data not available
Data not available
MeanCMIP6
Data not available
Data not available
MIROC-ESM2L
Data not available
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MPI-ESM1.2-HR
Data not available
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NorESM2-LM
Data not available
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UKESM1-0-LL
Data not available
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Data Information

  Title:
FluxNet Tower eddy covariance measurements (Tier 1)

  Version:
2015

  Institutions:
FluxNet, AmeriFlux, AfriFlux, AsiaFlux, ChinaFlux, Fluxnet-Canada, KoFlux, CarboAfrica, CarboEuropeIP, CarboItaly, CarboMont, GreenGrass, OzFlux-TERN, LBA, NECC, ICOS, TCOS-Siberia, and USCCC

  References:
Reichstein, M., D. Papale, R. Valentini, M. Aubinet, C. Bernhofer, A. Knohl, T. Laurila, A. Lindroth, E. Moors, K. Pilegaard, and G. Seufert (2007), Determinants of terrestrialecosystem carbon balance inferred from European eddy covarianceflux sites, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L01402, doi:10.1029/2006GL027880

Lasslop, G., M. Reichstein, D. Papale, A.D. Richardson, A. Arneth, A. Barr, P. Stoy, and G. Wohlfahrt (2010), Separation of net ecosystem exchange into assimilation and respiration using a light response curve approach: critical issues and global evaluation, Global Change Biology, 16, 187-208, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.02041.x

Knauer, J., S. Zaehle, B.E. Medlyn, M. Reichstein, C.A. Williams, M. Migliavacca, M.G. De Kauwe, C. Werner, C. Keitel, P. Kolari, J.-M. Limousin, and M.-L. Linderson (2018), Towards physiologically meaningful water use efficiency estimates from eddy covariance data, Global Change Biology, 24(2), 694-710, doi:10.1111/gcb.13893

  Comment:
Fluxnet variable(s) used: P_F