Mean State

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Period Mean (original grids) [degC]
Bias [degC]
RMSE [degC]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 0.312
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] -1.39 -1.70 4.59 0.0861 0.830 0.707 0.994 0.809
CanESM5 [-] -0.538 -0.850 4.57 0.0861 0.848 0.699 0.994 0.810
CESM2 [-] 0.859 0.547 4.27 0.129 0.874 0.716 0.991 0.825
GFDL-ESM4 [-] -0.612 -0.925 4.08 0.0431 0.869 0.732 0.997 0.832
MeanCMIP6 [-] 0.375 0.0625 3.29 0.0431 0.865 0.781 0.997 0.856
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 2.27 1.95 4.65 0.128 0.805 0.729 0.991 0.814
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 0.694 0.382 3.89 0.0854 0.881 0.727 0.994 0.832
NorESM2-LM [-] 0.841 0.529 4.19 0.128 0.884 0.718 0.991 0.828
UKESM1-0-LL [-] -1.68 -2.00 4.89 0.0431 0.825 0.682 0.997 0.796
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Period Mean (original grids) [degC]
Bias [degC]
RMSE [degC]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 10.4
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 10.2 -0.205 3.71 0.430 0.770 0.645 0.961 0.755
CanESM5 [-] 11.1 0.758 3.89 0.468 0.750 0.644 0.962 0.750
CESM2 [-] 12.1 1.70 3.74 0.589 0.727 0.671 0.959 0.757
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 9.64 -0.746 3.35 0.322 0.780 0.658 0.972 0.767
MeanCMIP6 [-] 10.9 0.557 2.89 0.382 0.794 0.721 0.966 0.801
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 12.3 1.90 4.02 0.325 0.725 0.657 0.969 0.752
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 10.5 0.164 3.37 0.398 0.782 0.659 0.970 0.767
NorESM2-LM [-] 12.1 1.69 3.86 0.629 0.731 0.660 0.957 0.752
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 9.72 -0.666 3.98 0.478 0.760 0.630 0.958 0.744
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [degC]
Bias [degC]
RMSE [degC]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 21.6
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 21.8 0.159 2.21 0.785 0.840 0.628 0.882 0.744
CanESM5 [-] 22.3 0.722 2.89 0.565 0.780 0.568 0.963 0.720
CESM2 [-] 21.8 0.210 2.40 0.109 0.802 0.605 0.993 0.751
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 21.6 -0.0164 2.24 0.230 0.889 0.609 0.985 0.773
MeanCMIP6 [-] 21.6 0.0284 1.76 0.567 0.879 0.680 0.896 0.784
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 23.2 1.55 3.13 0.783 0.700 0.587 0.949 0.706
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 22.7 1.08 2.86 0.456 0.732 0.600 0.970 0.725
NorESM2-LM [-] 22.3 0.663 2.60 0.550 0.834 0.583 0.964 0.741
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 21.1 -0.494 2.52 0.900 0.779 0.616 0.887 0.724
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [degC]
Bias [degC]
RMSE [degC]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 18.1
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 16.9 -1.17 2.98 0.867 0.841 0.669 0.943 0.780
CanESM5 [-] 17.0 -1.08 3.41 0.874 0.813 0.629 0.942 0.754
CESM2 [-] 19.4 1.31 3.19 1.01 0.809 0.674 0.933 0.772
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 15.5 -2.64 3.73 0.874 0.679 0.666 0.942 0.738
MeanCMIP6 [-] 17.0 -1.09 2.67 0.874 0.848 0.705 0.942 0.800
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 19.1 0.949 3.62 0.726 0.845 0.611 0.952 0.755
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 17.0 -1.07 3.24 0.874 0.802 0.634 0.942 0.753
NorESM2-LM [-] 19.4 1.26 3.34 1.01 0.763 0.679 0.933 0.763
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 16.8 -1.35 3.08 0.874 0.805 0.686 0.942 0.780
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [degC]
Bias [degC]
RMSE [degC]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 7.88
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 7.16 -0.719 3.82 0.306 0.829 0.654 0.979 0.779
CanESM5 [-] 8.92 1.04 3.80 0.451 0.809 0.688 0.970 0.788
CESM2 [-] 9.62 1.75 3.74 0.756 0.779 0.701 0.949 0.782
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 6.72 -1.15 3.35 0.175 0.806 0.700 0.988 0.798
MeanCMIP6 [-] 8.28 0.402 2.75 0.233 0.857 0.754 0.984 0.838
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 10.0 2.14 4.13 0.146 0.753 0.701 0.990 0.786
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 7.26 -0.617 3.33 0.335 0.843 0.696 0.977 0.803
NorESM2-LM [-] 9.61 1.73 3.63 0.815 0.792 0.699 0.945 0.784
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 6.90 -0.972 4.21 0.378 0.833 0.626 0.975 0.765
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [degC]
Bias [degC]
RMSE [degC]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 25.3
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 27.4 2.09 2.44 6.05 0.0148 0.171 7.41e-05 0.0891
CanESM5 [-] 28.4 3.11 3.30 5.10 0.00191 0.132 0.0631 0.0820
CESM2 [-] 27.0 1.72 1.97 0.00 0.0310 0.261 1.00 0.388
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 26.5 1.18 1.63 5.10 0.0918 0.140 0.0631 0.109
MeanCMIP6 [-] 27.2 1.91 2.13 5.10 0.0210 0.246 0.0631 0.144
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 26.6 1.29 1.27 6.05 0.0741 0.265 7.41e-05 0.151
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 25.9 0.564 0.942 0.00 0.319 0.251 1.00 0.455
NorESM2-LM [-] 27.1 1.85 2.24 0.00 0.0239 0.179 1.00 0.345
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 26.9 1.57 1.75 5.10 0.0422 0.333 0.0631 0.193
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Period Mean (original grids) [degC]
Bias [degC]
RMSE [degC]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 24.5
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 26.2 1.64 2.55 0.921 0.471 0.533 0.922 0.615
CanESM5 [-] 26.5 1.93 3.19 0.582 0.476 0.459 0.956 0.588
CESM2 [-] 26.4 1.86 2.52 0.871 0.437 0.531 0.926 0.606
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 24.9 0.356 2.06 0.581 0.674 0.468 0.956 0.642
MeanCMIP6 [-] 26.0 1.44 2.11 0.533 0.512 0.585 0.965 0.662
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 26.1 1.55 2.63 0.821 0.514 0.486 0.910 0.599
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 26.0 1.51 2.67 0.871 0.471 0.459 0.914 0.576
NorESM2-LM [-] 26.2 1.66 2.41 0.825 0.474 0.507 0.934 0.606
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 25.4 0.884 2.29 0.681 0.585 0.502 0.935 0.631
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [degC]
Bias [degC]
RMSE [degC]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] -8.75
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] -12.0 -3.24 6.55 0.00 0.701 0.648 1.00 0.749
CanESM5 [-] -10.5 -1.71 5.58 0.129 0.745 0.645 0.991 0.757
CESM2 [-] -9.02 -0.273 5.88 0.258 0.749 0.652 0.983 0.759
GFDL-ESM4 [-] -9.92 -1.17 4.51 0.129 0.850 0.703 0.991 0.812
MeanCMIP6 [-] -10.3 -1.57 4.43 0.129 0.783 0.736 0.991 0.812
MIROC-ESM2L [-] -8.58 0.168 4.81 0.00 0.871 0.672 1.00 0.804
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] -10.9 -2.15 5.82 0.254 0.723 0.683 0.983 0.768
NorESM2-LM [-] -9.25 -0.496 6.50 0.385 0.746 0.638 0.974 0.749
UKESM1-0-LL [-] -13.8 -5.06 6.44 0.00 0.632 0.676 1.00 0.746
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [degC]
Bias [degC]
RMSE [degC]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 11.6
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 12.1 0.560 3.70 0.309 0.787 0.661 0.979 0.772
CanESM5 [-] 12.6 1.03 4.00 0.440 0.746 0.663 0.971 0.761
CESM2 [-] 14.1 2.50 4.00 0.570 0.710 0.690 0.962 0.763
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 11.1 -0.496 3.53 0.344 0.762 0.665 0.977 0.767
MeanCMIP6 [-] 12.7 1.07 3.18 0.440 0.796 0.727 0.971 0.805
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 13.7 2.06 4.30 0.180 0.727 0.660 0.988 0.759
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 12.3 0.696 3.37 0.393 0.799 0.676 0.974 0.781
NorESM2-LM [-] 14.1 2.51 4.45 0.570 0.694 0.668 0.962 0.748
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 11.7 0.135 4.03 0.489 0.738 0.654 0.967 0.753

Temporally integrated period mean

BENCHMARK MEAN
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MODEL MEAN
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BIAS
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BIAS SCORE
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RMSE
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RMSE SCORE
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BENCHMARK MAX MONTH
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MODEL MAX MONTH
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DIFFERENCE IN MAX MONTH
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SEASONAL CYCLE SCORE
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Spatially integrated regional mean

MODEL COLORS
Data not available
REGIONAL MEAN
Data not available
ANNUAL CYCLE
Data not available
MONTHLY ANOMALY
Data not available
ANNUAL CYCLE
Data not available

All Models

Benchmark
Data not available
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BCC-CSM2-MR
Data not available
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CanESM5
Data not available
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CESM2
Data not available
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GFDL-ESM4
Data not available
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MeanCMIP6
Data not available
Data not available
MIROC-ESM2L
Data not available
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MPI-ESM1.2-HR
Data not available
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NorESM2-LM
Data not available
Data not available
UKESM1-0-LL
Data not available
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Data Information

  Title:
FluxNet Tower eddy covariance measurements (Tier 1)

  Version:
2015

  Institutions:
FluxNet, AmeriFlux, AfriFlux, AsiaFlux, ChinaFlux, Fluxnet-Canada, KoFlux, CarboAfrica, CarboEuropeIP, CarboItaly, CarboMont, GreenGrass, OzFlux-TERN, LBA, NECC, ICOS, TCOS-Siberia, and USCCC

  References:
Reichstein, M., D. Papale, R. Valentini, M. Aubinet, C. Bernhofer, A. Knohl, T. Laurila, A. Lindroth, E. Moors, K. Pilegaard, and G. Seufert (2007), Determinants of terrestrialecosystem carbon balance inferred from European eddy covarianceflux sites, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L01402, doi:10.1029/2006GL027880

Lasslop, G., M. Reichstein, D. Papale, A.D. Richardson, A. Arneth, A. Barr, P. Stoy, and G. Wohlfahrt (2010), Separation of net ecosystem exchange into assimilation and respiration using a light response curve approach: critical issues and global evaluation, Global Change Biology, 16, 187-208, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.02041.x

Knauer, J., S. Zaehle, B.E. Medlyn, M. Reichstein, C.A. Williams, M. Migliavacca, M.G. De Kauwe, C. Werner, C. Keitel, P. Kolari, J.-M. Limousin, and M.-L. Linderson (2018), Towards physiologically meaningful water use efficiency estimates from eddy covariance data, Global Change Biology, 24(2), 694-710, doi:10.1111/gcb.13893

  Comment:
Fluxnet variable(s) used: TA_F