Mean State

Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [W m-2]
Bias [W m-2]
RMSE [W m-2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 132.
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 126. -6.33 30.8 0.508 0.896 0.675 0.966 0.803
CanESM5 [-] 141. 8.13 25.4 0.297 0.865 0.731 0.980 0.827
CESM2 [-] 133. 0.672 25.2 0.890 0.902 0.721 0.922 0.816
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 130. -2.08 22.3 0.424 0.914 0.748 0.972 0.846
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 142. 9.26 28.4 0.297 0.858 0.705 0.980 0.812
MeanCMIP6 [-] 136. 3.26 18.5 0.381 0.920 0.786 0.975 0.867
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 134. 1.12 23.9 0.381 0.897 0.734 0.975 0.835
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 137. 5.01 25.9 0.381 0.889 0.720 0.975 0.826
NorESM2-LM [-] 129. -3.64 29.4 0.635 0.879 0.689 0.958 0.804
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 139. 6.94 23.8 0.212 0.886 0.740 0.986 0.838
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [W m-2]
Bias [W m-2]
RMSE [W m-2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 167.
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 167. 0.0632 33.3 0.539 0.848 0.645 0.961 0.775
CanESM5 [-] 179. 12.1 31.5 0.474 0.819 0.675 0.964 0.783
CESM2 [-] 176. 8.43 29.6 0.459 0.837 0.687 0.961 0.793
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 167. -0.588 28.0 0.469 0.866 0.692 0.962 0.803
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 173. 5.34 33.2 0.539 0.825 0.654 0.958 0.773
MeanCMIP6 [-] 174. 6.24 23.9 0.429 0.861 0.740 0.967 0.827
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 173. 5.86 28.5 0.489 0.856 0.688 0.960 0.798
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 174. 6.48 30.7 0.479 0.831 0.676 0.962 0.786
NorESM2-LM [-] 175. 7.17 30.9 0.504 0.833 0.675 0.959 0.785
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 179. 11.8 30.3 0.519 0.808 0.689 0.960 0.786
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [W m-2]
Bias [W m-2]
RMSE [W m-2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 229.
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 241. 11.9 36.4 1.02 0.853 0.617 0.865 0.738
CanESM5 [-] 247. 18.0 38.2 1.02 0.782 0.618 0.865 0.721
CESM2 [-] 237. 7.28 34.4 1.02 0.846 0.622 0.844 0.734
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 239. 10.1 34.7 0.909 0.876 0.619 0.873 0.747
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 235. 5.91 38.5 1.14 0.812 0.578 0.865 0.708
MeanCMIP6 [-] 240. 10.3 29.4 0.909 0.874 0.680 0.873 0.777
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 234. 4.59 35.1 1.02 0.837 0.614 0.853 0.730
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 246. 16.3 34.5 1.14 0.750 0.649 0.865 0.728
NorESM2-LM [-] 237. 7.64 36.9 1.36 0.847 0.597 0.789 0.708
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 248. 18.4 36.0 1.14 0.761 0.650 0.878 0.734
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [W m-2]
Bias [W m-2]
RMSE [W m-2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 236.
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 232. -4.14 32.0 0.874 0.916 0.654 0.942 0.792
CanESM5 [-] 240. 3.70 35.4 1.02 0.951 0.614 0.932 0.778
CESM2 [-] 241. 4.68 26.1 0.871 0.907 0.721 0.942 0.823
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 231. -4.88 25.7 1.02 0.904 0.716 0.932 0.817
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 226. -10.4 39.0 0.871 0.846 0.606 0.942 0.750
MeanCMIP6 [-] 235. -1.06 24.7 1.02 0.936 0.720 0.932 0.827
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 240. 3.64 29.9 0.874 0.949 0.665 0.942 0.805
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 235. -0.995 30.2 0.874 0.904 0.668 0.942 0.796
NorESM2-LM [-] 235. -1.21 31.0 0.726 0.910 0.674 0.952 0.802
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 239. 2.86 25.4 1.02 0.924 0.715 0.932 0.821
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [W m-2]
Bias [W m-2]
RMSE [W m-2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 146.
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 140. -5.63 34.0 0.430 0.883 0.658 0.972 0.793
CanESM5 [-] 154. 8.85 29.6 0.473 0.857 0.710 0.965 0.810
CESM2 [-] 155. 9.16 28.6 0.358 0.864 0.723 0.970 0.820
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 140. -5.69 27.1 0.358 0.899 0.720 0.972 0.828
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 151. 5.25 33.9 0.516 0.834 0.679 0.960 0.788
MeanCMIP6 [-] 149. 3.64 22.5 0.358 0.892 0.770 0.972 0.851
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 152. 6.21 27.1 0.358 0.877 0.720 0.972 0.823
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 146. 0.0485 28.4 0.301 0.900 0.704 0.980 0.822
NorESM2-LM [-] 154. 8.12 28.5 0.373 0.869 0.719 0.971 0.820
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 157. 11.0 30.2 0.401 0.836 0.712 0.973 0.808
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [W m-2]
Bias [W m-2]
RMSE [W m-2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 177.
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 199. 22.4 41.5 0.00 0.515 0.351 1.00 0.554
CanESM5 [-] 238. 60.7 69.8 0.00 0.166 0.403 1.00 0.493
CESM2 [-] 199. 21.6 32.1 0.00 0.527 0.469 1.00 0.616
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 226. 49.2 52.0 0.00 0.234 0.565 1.00 0.591
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 218. 41.5 42.4 0.00 0.293 0.528 1.00 0.587
MeanCMIP6 [-] 223. 46.5 49.3 0.00 0.253 0.573 1.00 0.600
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 224. 47.1 56.3 2.03 0.248 0.407 0.749 0.453
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 241. 64.3 73.7 0.00 0.149 0.404 1.00 0.489
NorESM2-LM [-] 213. 36.4 44.0 1.02 0.341 0.442 0.933 0.539
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 215. 38.3 39.1 0.00 0.322 0.555 1.00 0.608
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [W m-2]
Bias [W m-2]
RMSE [W m-2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 212.
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 240. 28.1 45.4 0.626 0.512 0.391 0.959 0.563
CanESM5 [-] 237. 25.1 42.4 0.483 0.574 0.406 0.963 0.587
CESM2 [-] 227. 15.4 36.8 0.242 0.638 0.423 0.984 0.617
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 230. 18.5 37.6 0.577 0.641 0.412 0.934 0.600
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 226. 14.4 40.5 0.533 0.629 0.389 0.945 0.588
MeanCMIP6 [-] 233. 21.6 34.6 0.385 0.599 0.496 0.969 0.640
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 226. 14.3 36.0 0.580 0.696 0.438 0.945 0.629
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 245. 33.1 47.8 0.871 0.414 0.392 0.914 0.528
NorESM2-LM [-] 226. 14.0 39.9 0.386 0.644 0.392 0.969 0.599
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 241. 29.3 43.4 0.966 0.488 0.421 0.902 0.558
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [W m-2]
Bias [W m-2]
RMSE [W m-2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 96.6
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 86.6 -9.92 32.7 0.254 0.839 0.752 0.983 0.831
CanESM5 [-] 99.2 2.68 22.3 0.127 0.927 0.805 0.992 0.882
CESM2 [-] 86.7 -9.83 26.1 0.127 0.871 0.792 0.992 0.861
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 87.6 -8.96 25.4 0.254 0.910 0.790 0.983 0.868
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 98.0 1.42 26.0 0.254 0.925 0.776 0.983 0.865
MeanCMIP6 [-] 90.6 -5.94 20.0 0.254 0.897 0.839 0.983 0.889
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 91.9 -4.69 21.6 0.381 0.941 0.811 0.975 0.884
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 92.6 -3.94 32.4 0.381 0.851 0.744 0.975 0.828
NorESM2-LM [-] 80.8 -15.8 31.7 0.508 0.839 0.763 0.966 0.833
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 98.5 1.96 21.1 0.381 0.920 0.814 0.975 0.881
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [W m-2]
Bias [W m-2]
RMSE [W m-2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 181.
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 180. -1.15 28.7 0.582 0.907 0.704 0.961 0.819
CanESM5 [-] 194. 12.4 30.7 0.453 0.842 0.715 0.970 0.811
CESM2 [-] 192. 10.3 30.0 0.404 0.843 0.722 0.971 0.815
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 179. -2.42 26.8 0.485 0.893 0.732 0.968 0.831
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 183. 1.86 30.6 0.582 0.872 0.703 0.961 0.810
MeanCMIP6 [-] 187. 5.39 22.8 0.437 0.895 0.776 0.971 0.854
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 186. 4.72 28.0 0.485 0.871 0.727 0.968 0.823
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 186. 4.41 27.3 0.469 0.894 0.729 0.967 0.830
NorESM2-LM [-] 192. 10.3 29.9 0.469 0.842 0.722 0.967 0.813
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 190. 9.05 29.2 0.501 0.851 0.725 0.967 0.817

Temporally integrated period mean

BENCHMARK MEAN
Data not available
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MODEL MEAN
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BIAS
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BIAS SCORE
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RMSE
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RMSE SCORE
Data not available
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BENCHMARK MAX MONTH
Data not available
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MODEL MAX MONTH
Data not available
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DIFFERENCE IN MAX MONTH
Data not available
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SEASONAL CYCLE SCORE
Data not available
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Spatially integrated regional mean

MODEL COLORS
Data not available
REGIONAL MEAN
Data not available
ANNUAL CYCLE
Data not available
MONTHLY ANOMALY
Data not available
ANNUAL CYCLE
Data not available

All Models

Benchmark
Data not available
Data not available
BCC-CSM2-MR
Data not available
Data not available
CanESM5
Data not available
Data not available
CESM2
Data not available
Data not available
GFDL-ESM4
Data not available
Data not available
IPSL-CM6A-LR
Data not available
Data not available
MeanCMIP6
Data not available
Data not available
MIROC-ESM2L
Data not available
Data not available
MPI-ESM1.2-HR
Data not available
Data not available
NorESM2-LM
Data not available
Data not available
UKESM1-0-LL
Data not available
Data not available

Data Information

  Title:
FluxNet Tower eddy covariance measurements (Tier 1)

  Version:
2015

  Institutions:
FluxNet, AmeriFlux, AfriFlux, AsiaFlux, ChinaFlux, Fluxnet-Canada, KoFlux, CarboAfrica, CarboEuropeIP, CarboItaly, CarboMont, GreenGrass, OzFlux-TERN, LBA, NECC, ICOS, TCOS-Siberia, and USCCC

  References:
Reichstein, M., D. Papale, R. Valentini, M. Aubinet, C. Bernhofer, A. Knohl, T. Laurila, A. Lindroth, E. Moors, K. Pilegaard, and G. Seufert (2007), Determinants of terrestrialecosystem carbon balance inferred from European eddy covarianceflux sites, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L01402, doi:10.1029/2006GL027880

Lasslop, G., M. Reichstein, D. Papale, A.D. Richardson, A. Arneth, A. Barr, P. Stoy, and G. Wohlfahrt (2010), Separation of net ecosystem exchange into assimilation and respiration using a light response curve approach: critical issues and global evaluation, Global Change Biology, 16, 187-208, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.02041.x

Knauer, J., S. Zaehle, B.E. Medlyn, M. Reichstein, C.A. Williams, M. Migliavacca, M.G. De Kauwe, C. Werner, C. Keitel, P. Kolari, J.-M. Limousin, and M.-L. Linderson (2018), Towards physiologically meaningful water use efficiency estimates from eddy covariance data, Global Change Biology, 24(2), 694-710, doi:10.1111/gcb.13893

  Comment:
Fluxnet variable(s) used: SW_IN_F