Mean State

Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [%]
Model Period Mean (intersection) [%]
Benchmark Period Mean (intersection) [%]
Model Period Mean (complement) [%]
Benchmark Period Mean (complement) [%]
Bias [%]
RMSE [%]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Spatial Distribution Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 70.9
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 85.1 85.0 70.9 14.2 17.5 1.96 0.471 0.539 0.729 0.435 0.543
CanESM5 [-] 77.8 77.9 70.9 8.08 13.3 1.79 0.648 0.616 0.759 0.524 0.633
CESM2 [-] 79.1 79.0 70.9 8.49 13.1 1.96 0.645 0.571 0.737 0.566 0.618
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 86.1 86.1 70.9 15.1 17.5 1.90 0.397 0.563 0.753 0.634 0.582
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 84.6 84.6 70.9 13.9 18.7 2.08 0.565 0.461 0.721 0.248 0.491
MeanCMIP6 [-] 82.8 82.6 70.9 12.0 14.4 1.98 0.552 0.616 0.736 0.394 0.583
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 81.7 82.0 70.9 11.4 16.5 1.96 0.506 0.534 0.736 0.514 0.565
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 85.1 85.1 70.9 14.5 18.3 2.31 0.430 0.497 0.667 0.678 0.554
NorESM2-LM [-] 79.0 79.0 70.9 8.66 13.4 1.95 0.618 0.553 0.740 0.625 0.618
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 82.6 82.5 70.9 12.0 16.5 2.04 0.562 0.510 0.732 0.484 0.560
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Period Mean (original grids) [%]
Model Period Mean (intersection) [%]
Benchmark Period Mean (intersection) [%]
Model Period Mean (complement) [%]
Benchmark Period Mean (complement) [%]
Bias [%]
RMSE [%]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Spatial Distribution Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 68.9
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 68.6 68.6 68.9 0.198 14.7 1.87 0.355 0.448 0.692 0.985 0.586
CanESM5 [-] 69.2 69.0 68.9 2.84 12.7 1.60 0.378 0.472 0.762 0.962 0.609
CESM2 [-] 67.2 67.2 68.9 -0.0433 12.1 1.86 0.382 0.503 0.691 0.987 0.613
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 72.7 72.7 68.9 3.80 13.1 1.87 0.357 0.473 0.688 0.987 0.596
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 70.9 70.9 68.9 3.15 13.4 1.90 0.396 0.434 0.686 0.979 0.586
MeanCMIP6 [-] 69.1 69.1 68.9 1.53 11.4 1.78 0.410 0.545 0.697 0.989 0.637
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 68.6 68.6 68.9 1.06 14.1 1.91 0.350 0.484 0.675 0.983 0.595
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 67.4 67.4 68.9 -0.00125 14.6 1.80 0.328 0.467 0.707 0.975 0.589
NorESM2-LM [-] 66.7 66.7 68.9 -0.318 13.1 1.87 0.366 0.486 0.687 0.975 0.600
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 69.6 69.6 68.9 2.09 14.6 2.00 0.363 0.471 0.660 0.925 0.578
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Period Mean (original grids) [%]
Model Period Mean (intersection) [%]
Benchmark Period Mean (intersection) [%]
Model Period Mean (complement) [%]
Benchmark Period Mean (complement) [%]
Bias [%]
RMSE [%]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Spatial Distribution Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 45.0
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 37.5 37.7 45.0 -6.06 11.2 1.20 0.417 0.484 0.812 0.985 0.636
CanESM5 [-] 41.2 40.7 45.0 -1.51 11.6 1.18 0.430 0.449 0.819 0.934 0.616
CESM2 [-] 40.6 40.4 45.0 -2.78 9.94 1.22 0.476 0.504 0.807 0.988 0.656
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 42.2 42.4 45.0 -2.64 8.93 1.04 0.510 0.497 0.835 0.990 0.666
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 42.4 41.7 45.0 -1.48 10.0 1.17 0.448 0.491 0.813 0.974 0.644
MeanCMIP6 [-] 38.6 38.6 45.0 -4.67 8.75 0.953 0.486 0.588 0.843 0.989 0.699
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 35.6 35.2 45.0 -7.90 12.7 1.04 0.372 0.528 0.836 0.931 0.639
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 32.5 32.5 45.0 -10.4 12.9 1.11 0.324 0.533 0.812 0.976 0.635
NorESM2-LM [-] 40.0 39.6 45.0 -3.81 11.3 1.21 0.421 0.496 0.812 0.981 0.641
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 35.7 35.5 45.0 -7.11 11.6 1.15 0.402 0.533 0.814 0.937 0.644
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [%]
Model Period Mean (intersection) [%]
Benchmark Period Mean (intersection) [%]
Model Period Mean (complement) [%]
Benchmark Period Mean (complement) [%]
Bias [%]
RMSE [%]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Spatial Distribution Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 49.2
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 56.2 55.9 49.2 6.72 17.5 1.14 0.583 0.480 0.876 0.895 0.663
CanESM5 [-] 55.6 55.9 49.2 8.55 16.7 1.24 0.544 0.513 0.861 0.972 0.681
CESM2 [-] 49.7 49.9 49.2 1.19 12.6 1.05 0.585 0.637 0.885 0.737 0.696
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 49.6 49.6 49.2 0.453 16.4 1.57 0.512 0.513 0.799 0.946 0.657
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 58.7 58.8 49.2 10.2 18.2 1.05 0.502 0.556 0.884 0.963 0.692
MeanCMIP6 [-] 53.1 52.7 49.2 4.04 13.2 1.00 0.596 0.618 0.896 0.809 0.708
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 50.7 50.5 49.2 1.97 16.8 1.12 0.528 0.533 0.880 0.935 0.682
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 45.5 45.8 49.2 -2.69 15.9 1.11 0.518 0.552 0.881 0.953 0.691
NorESM2-LM [-] 50.4 50.7 49.2 2.20 13.0 1.07 0.592 0.616 0.887 0.758 0.694
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 52.1 52.1 49.2 4.06 16.3 1.19 0.527 0.545 0.868 0.968 0.690
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [%]
Model Period Mean (intersection) [%]
Benchmark Period Mean (intersection) [%]
Model Period Mean (complement) [%]
Benchmark Period Mean (complement) [%]
Bias [%]
RMSE [%]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Spatial Distribution Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 79.5
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 81.3 83.5 79.5 1.34 13.3 2.34 0.305 0.356 0.617 0.918 0.510
CanESM5 [-] 89.2 85.1 79.5 8.43 12.3 2.11 0.307 0.507 0.681 0.962 0.593
CESM2 [-] 83.1 82.0 79.5 1.97 7.43 2.28 0.503 0.510 0.628 0.738 0.578
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 86.1 86.1 79.5 6.63 9.98 2.00 0.421 0.473 0.688 0.857 0.582
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 87.5 86.2 79.5 5.72 10.4 2.26 0.386 0.474 0.650 0.995 0.596
MeanCMIP6 [-] 84.3 84.5 79.5 4.46 8.08 1.79 0.469 0.538 0.730 0.710 0.597
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 83.5 82.8 79.5 2.52 8.66 2.39 0.451 0.462 0.612 0.948 0.587
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 87.1 86.4 79.5 6.14 9.59 1.77 0.411 0.519 0.727 0.930 0.621
NorESM2-LM [-] 81.5 80.4 79.5 0.550 8.08 2.06 0.502 0.453 0.678 0.868 0.590
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 86.4 86.1 79.5 5.51 9.47 2.16 0.388 0.468 0.655 0.917 0.579
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [%]
Model Period Mean (intersection) [%]
Benchmark Period Mean (intersection) [%]
Model Period Mean (complement) [%]
Benchmark Period Mean (complement) [%]
Bias [%]
RMSE [%]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Spatial Distribution Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 73.3
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 78.1 78.1 73.3 4.32 12.9 1.61 0.549 0.411 0.771 0.923 0.613
CanESM5 [-] 78.5 78.3 73.3 6.45 9.97 1.58 0.557 0.567 0.792 0.859 0.668
CESM2 [-] 72.0 71.9 73.3 -0.693 8.76 1.35 0.566 0.579 0.819 0.869 0.683
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 84.1 83.9 73.3 10.6 13.2 1.66 0.379 0.509 0.766 0.692 0.571
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 78.8 78.3 73.3 5.39 12.4 1.67 0.561 0.418 0.764 0.765 0.585
MeanCMIP6 [-] 78.0 77.8 73.3 4.84 8.54 1.36 0.602 0.587 0.814 0.668 0.651
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 76.7 76.8 73.3 3.77 10.2 1.49 0.504 0.533 0.785 0.936 0.658
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 81.3 81.5 73.3 8.18 11.8 1.64 0.453 0.502 0.773 0.884 0.623
NorESM2-LM [-] 71.4 71.6 73.3 -0.967 8.96 1.28 0.566 0.566 0.834 0.887 0.684
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 77.7 77.8 73.3 4.80 10.3 1.66 0.593 0.501 0.759 0.679 0.607
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [%]
Model Period Mean (intersection) [%]
Benchmark Period Mean (intersection) [%]
Model Period Mean (complement) [%]
Benchmark Period Mean (complement) [%]
Bias [%]
RMSE [%]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Spatial Distribution Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 82.6
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 78.8 78.7 82.6 -5.27 11.3 2.26 0.150 0.305 0.647 0.839 0.449
CanESM5 [-] 84.4 83.3 82.6 2.90 11.2 2.31 0.141 0.298 0.643 0.816 0.439
CESM2 [-] 83.5 83.7 82.6 1.05 6.39 2.13 0.363 0.340 0.675 0.896 0.523
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 85.3 85.3 82.6 2.73 7.24 1.95 0.343 0.390 0.709 0.998 0.566
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 85.8 85.6 82.6 1.95 7.41 2.04 0.310 0.369 0.687 0.975 0.542
MeanCMIP6 [-] 83.5 83.6 82.6 0.663 6.38 2.01 0.319 0.400 0.694 0.966 0.556
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 89.5 89.0 82.6 5.76 9.65 2.33 0.212 0.342 0.629 0.997 0.504
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 84.1 83.9 82.6 -0.537 8.40 2.10 0.275 0.414 0.678 0.862 0.529
NorESM2-LM [-] 80.4 80.3 82.6 -2.11 7.89 2.09 0.295 0.269 0.682 0.913 0.486
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 82.8 82.6 82.6 -1.06 7.54 2.15 0.264 0.360 0.674 0.975 0.527
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [%]
Model Period Mean (intersection) [%]
Benchmark Period Mean (intersection) [%]
Model Period Mean (complement) [%]
Benchmark Period Mean (complement) [%]
Bias [%]
RMSE [%]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Spatial Distribution Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 72.3
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 67.1 67.1 72.3 -5.05 10.8 1.43 0.371 0.390 0.796 0.974 0.584
CanESM5 [-] 72.5 72.4 72.3 2.74 13.3 1.55 0.327 0.351 0.777 0.895 0.540
CESM2 [-] 66.3 66.3 72.3 -4.24 9.46 1.30 0.403 0.443 0.817 0.920 0.605
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 73.3 73.4 72.3 1.08 9.33 1.22 0.459 0.379 0.828 0.998 0.609
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 71.1 70.5 72.3 -0.792 9.77 1.53 0.464 0.353 0.783 0.984 0.588
MeanCMIP6 [-] 69.2 69.2 72.3 -1.96 7.35 1.21 0.485 0.476 0.828 0.991 0.651
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 72.6 72.4 72.3 0.868 10.7 1.46 0.379 0.422 0.787 0.905 0.583
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 68.3 68.3 72.3 -3.60 10.6 1.38 0.378 0.399 0.800 0.930 0.581
NorESM2-LM [-] 65.0 65.0 72.3 -5.57 10.1 1.27 0.386 0.427 0.823 0.919 0.596
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 68.0 67.6 72.3 -3.51 9.25 1.45 0.437 0.431 0.787 0.939 0.605
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [%]
Model Period Mean (intersection) [%]
Benchmark Period Mean (intersection) [%]
Model Period Mean (complement) [%]
Benchmark Period Mean (complement) [%]
Bias [%]
RMSE [%]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Spatial Distribution Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 71.9
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 91.6 91.6 71.8 20.4 24.2 3.03 0.378 0.498 0.520 0.471 0.473
CanESM5 [-] 84.3 84.2 71.8 13.6 18.8 2.46 0.559 0.534 0.625 0.510 0.553
CESM2 [-] 90.8 90.6 71.8 19.3 24.3 3.08 0.379 0.434 0.510 0.607 0.473
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 91.7 91.7 71.8 19.9 24.0 2.99 0.403 0.489 0.535 0.345 0.452
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 89.5 89.4 71.8 18.0 24.0 3.00 0.481 0.436 0.524 0.279 0.431
MeanCMIP6 [-] 91.0 90.9 71.9 19.6 23.7 3.10 0.407 0.479 0.506 0.362 0.446
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 89.7 89.5 71.8 18.5 24.8 3.41 0.417 0.427 0.435 0.430 0.427
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 93.5 93.5 71.8 22.4 28.0 3.23 0.325 0.414 0.480 0.701 0.467
NorESM2-LM [-] 92.2 91.6 71.8 20.6 25.3 3.11 0.350 0.424 0.503 0.649 0.470
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 94.1 94.1 71.8 22.8 28.4 3.28 0.334 0.386 0.473 0.581 0.432
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [%]
Model Period Mean (intersection) [%]
Benchmark Period Mean (intersection) [%]
Model Period Mean (complement) [%]
Benchmark Period Mean (complement) [%]
Bias [%]
RMSE [%]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Spatial Distribution Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 60.9
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 68.8 68.8 60.9 7.57 16.1 1.37 0.546 0.464 0.834 0.729 0.607
CanESM5 [-] 70.5 70.0 60.9 10.3 15.0 1.16 0.518 0.557 0.872 0.817 0.664
CESM2 [-] 61.3 61.3 60.9 1.17 13.0 1.33 0.494 0.568 0.827 0.735 0.639
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 71.3 71.2 60.9 10.3 14.6 1.41 0.499 0.540 0.819 0.834 0.646
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 72.0 71.9 60.9 11.0 17.0 1.21 0.502 0.523 0.856 0.719 0.625
MeanCMIP6 [-] 67.7 67.5 60.9 7.02 12.1 0.993 0.594 0.618 0.895 0.652 0.675
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 65.8 65.6 60.9 5.23 14.7 1.13 0.487 0.558 0.880 0.942 0.685
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 66.1 66.1 60.9 5.70 13.4 1.17 0.579 0.501 0.866 0.865 0.663
NorESM2-LM [-] 61.2 61.2 60.9 0.876 13.0 1.23 0.504 0.553 0.850 0.738 0.640
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 68.8 68.8 60.9 8.44 15.5 1.60 0.507 0.503 0.788 0.745 0.609

Temporally integrated period mean

BENCHMARK MEAN
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MODEL MEAN
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BIAS
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BIAS SCORE
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RMSE
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RMSE SCORE
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BENCHMARK MAX MONTH
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MODEL MAX MONTH
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DIFFERENCE IN MAX MONTH
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SEASONAL CYCLE SCORE
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SPATIAL TAYLOR DIAGRAM
Data not available
MODEL COLORS
Data not available

Spatially integrated regional mean

MODEL COLORS
Data not available
REGIONAL MEAN
Data not available
ANNUAL CYCLE
Data not available
MONTHLY ANOMALY
Data not available
ANNUAL CYCLE
Data not available

All Models

Benchmark
Data not available
Data not available
BCC-CSM2-MR
Data not available
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CanESM5
Data not available
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CESM2
Data not available
Data not available
GFDL-ESM4
Data not available
Data not available
IPSL-CM6A-LR
Data not available
Data not available
MeanCMIP6
Data not available
Data not available
MIROC-ESM2L
Data not available
Data not available
MPI-ESM1.2-HR
Data not available
Data not available
NorESM2-LM
Data not available
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UKESM1-0-LL
Data not available
Data not available

Data Information

  Title:
CRU time series (TS) high-resolution gridded datasets

  Version:
4.02

  Institutions:
Climatic Research Unit, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, UK

  Source:
monthly observations at meteorological stations across the world land areas

  History:
2019-05-06: downloaded source from https://crudata.uea.ac.uk/cru/data/hrg/cru_ts_4.02/
2019-05-08: estimate saturated vapor pressure using temperature
2019-05-08: calculate relative humidity using saturated vapor pressure and vapor pressure
2019-05-08: converted to ILAMB required netCDF with https://github.com/mmu2019/Datasets/blob/master/read-rhums-cru.py

  References:
Harris, I., P.D. Jones, T.J. Osborn and D.H. Lister (2014), Updated high-resolution grids of monthly climatic observations - the CRU TS3.10 Dataset, International Journal of Climatology, 34(3), 623-642, doi:10.1002/joc.3711

WMO CIMO Guide (2008), ANNEX 4.B. FORMULAE FOR THE COMPUTATION OF MEASURES OF HUMIDITY, MEASUREMENT OF HUMIDITY, Chapter 4, 163, https://library.wmo.int/doc_num.php?explnum_id=3151

  Comments:
time_period: 1980-01 through 2017-12
original_temporal_resolution: monthly
original_spatial_resolution: 0.5 degree
original_units: hPa
final_temporal_resolution: monthly
final_spatial_resolution: 0.5 degree
final_units: %

  Convention:
CF-1.7