Mean State

Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [%]
Model Period Mean (intersection) [%]
Benchmark Period Mean (intersection) [%]
Model Period Mean (complement) [%]
Benchmark Period Mean (complement) [%]
Bias [%]
RMSE [%]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Spatial Distribution Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 70.2
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 85.1 85.0 70.2 14.9 18.4 1.70 0.500 0.553 0.774 0.449 0.566
CanESM5 [-] 77.8 77.9 70.2 8.75 15.7 1.85 0.699 0.528 0.746 0.540 0.608
CESM2 [-] 79.1 79.0 70.2 9.15 14.5 1.58 0.684 0.553 0.810 0.582 0.636
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 86.1 86.1 70.2 15.8 19.2 1.63 0.438 0.531 0.807 0.650 0.592
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 84.6 84.6 70.2 14.6 17.3 1.69 0.590 0.617 0.798 0.257 0.576
MeanCMIP6 [-] 82.8 82.6 70.2 12.7 15.1 1.57 0.580 0.625 0.817 0.408 0.611
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 81.7 82.0 70.2 12.1 16.2 1.58 0.564 0.612 0.814 0.530 0.626
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 85.1 85.1 70.2 15.2 17.6 1.86 0.463 0.635 0.752 0.694 0.636
NorESM2-LM [-] 79.0 79.0 70.2 9.33 14.7 1.57 0.660 0.542 0.815 0.642 0.640
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 82.6 82.5 70.2 12.7 16.1 1.62 0.593 0.594 0.814 0.499 0.619
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [%]
Model Period Mean (intersection) [%]
Benchmark Period Mean (intersection) [%]
Model Period Mean (complement) [%]
Benchmark Period Mean (complement) [%]
Bias [%]
RMSE [%]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Spatial Distribution Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 62.5
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 68.6 68.6 62.5 6.62 15.3 1.82 0.323 0.463 0.688 0.974 0.582
CanESM5 [-] 69.2 69.0 62.5 9.27 16.3 1.72 0.311 0.436 0.732 0.911 0.565
CESM2 [-] 67.2 67.2 62.5 6.38 13.6 1.88 0.349 0.481 0.672 0.983 0.593
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 72.7 72.7 62.5 10.2 16.8 1.88 0.255 0.445 0.672 0.979 0.559
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 70.9 70.9 62.5 9.58 15.7 1.89 0.305 0.473 0.677 0.945 0.574
MeanCMIP6 [-] 69.1 69.1 62.5 7.97 13.7 1.75 0.312 0.535 0.688 0.975 0.609
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 68.6 68.6 62.5 7.49 15.9 1.86 0.299 0.499 0.671 0.984 0.590
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 67.4 67.4 62.5 6.43 15.3 1.75 0.292 0.490 0.706 0.985 0.592
NorESM2-LM [-] 66.7 66.7 62.5 6.11 14.0 1.87 0.348 0.471 0.671 0.990 0.590
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 69.6 69.6 62.5 8.51 15.6 1.84 0.293 0.513 0.676 0.970 0.593
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [%]
Model Period Mean (intersection) [%]
Benchmark Period Mean (intersection) [%]
Model Period Mean (complement) [%]
Benchmark Period Mean (complement) [%]
Bias [%]
RMSE [%]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Spatial Distribution Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 36.0
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 37.5 37.7 36.0 2.98 9.60 1.22 0.447 0.473 0.798 0.931 0.624
CanESM5 [-] 41.2 40.7 36.0 7.53 13.2 1.16 0.338 0.429 0.821 0.820 0.568
CESM2 [-] 40.6 40.4 36.0 6.26 10.9 1.20 0.384 0.494 0.800 0.962 0.627
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 42.2 42.4 36.0 6.40 10.6 1.05 0.409 0.458 0.832 0.937 0.619
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 42.4 41.7 36.0 7.56 11.6 1.33 0.390 0.467 0.774 0.892 0.598
MeanCMIP6 [-] 38.6 38.6 36.0 4.37 8.56 1.00 0.444 0.570 0.829 0.938 0.670
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 35.6 35.2 36.0 1.15 11.0 1.10 0.371 0.517 0.820 0.821 0.609
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 32.5 32.5 36.0 -1.34 8.86 1.23 0.486 0.493 0.781 0.901 0.631
NorESM2-LM [-] 40.0 39.6 36.0 5.23 11.3 1.16 0.376 0.495 0.815 0.964 0.629
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 35.7 35.5 36.0 1.93 9.83 1.15 0.418 0.532 0.813 0.826 0.624
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Period Mean (original grids) [%]
Model Period Mean (intersection) [%]
Benchmark Period Mean (intersection) [%]
Model Period Mean (complement) [%]
Benchmark Period Mean (complement) [%]
Bias [%]
RMSE [%]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Spatial Distribution Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 45.3
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 56.2 55.9 45.3 10.6 16.9 0.902 0.581 0.578 0.910 0.931 0.716
CanESM5 [-] 55.6 55.9 45.3 12.4 18.1 1.05 0.533 0.553 0.888 0.979 0.701
CESM2 [-] 49.7 49.9 45.3 5.08 13.3 0.891 0.621 0.628 0.910 0.791 0.716
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 49.6 49.6 45.3 4.34 17.8 1.58 0.530 0.534 0.795 0.965 0.672
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 58.7 58.8 45.3 14.0 19.0 0.865 0.490 0.632 0.912 0.971 0.728
MeanCMIP6 [-] 53.1 52.7 45.3 7.93 13.3 0.766 0.619 0.669 0.931 0.859 0.750
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 50.7 50.5 45.3 5.84 14.8 0.856 0.603 0.632 0.920 0.959 0.749
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 45.5 45.8 45.3 1.21 14.4 0.873 0.573 0.619 0.914 0.970 0.739
NorESM2-LM [-] 50.4 50.7 45.3 6.06 13.6 0.897 0.634 0.619 0.918 0.812 0.720
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 52.1 52.1 45.3 7.94 15.9 0.954 0.538 0.641 0.905 0.975 0.740
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [%]
Model Period Mean (intersection) [%]
Benchmark Period Mean (intersection) [%]
Model Period Mean (complement) [%]
Benchmark Period Mean (complement) [%]
Bias [%]
RMSE [%]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Spatial Distribution Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 72.6
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 81.3 83.5 72.6 8.08 15.8 2.75 0.356 0.309 0.538 0.926 0.488
CanESM5 [-] 89.2 85.1 72.6 15.3 17.6 1.69 0.196 0.490 0.755 0.952 0.576
CESM2 [-] 83.1 82.0 72.6 8.90 11.9 2.65 0.373 0.447 0.563 0.715 0.509
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 86.1 86.1 72.6 13.5 15.6 2.34 0.218 0.406 0.620 0.843 0.499
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 87.5 86.2 72.6 12.7 15.0 2.22 0.251 0.499 0.662 0.995 0.581
MeanCMIP6 [-] 84.3 84.5 72.6 11.4 13.2 1.89 0.306 0.476 0.714 0.693 0.533
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 83.5 82.8 72.6 9.39 12.7 2.21 0.380 0.476 0.653 0.936 0.584
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 87.1 86.4 72.6 13.0 15.1 1.79 0.251 0.468 0.726 0.921 0.566
NorESM2-LM [-] 81.5 80.4 72.6 7.49 11.1 2.29 0.383 0.427 0.643 0.853 0.547
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 86.4 86.1 72.6 12.4 14.2 2.34 0.250 0.467 0.629 0.911 0.545
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [%]
Model Period Mean (intersection) [%]
Benchmark Period Mean (intersection) [%]
Model Period Mean (complement) [%]
Benchmark Period Mean (complement) [%]
Bias [%]
RMSE [%]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Spatial Distribution Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 67.3
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 78.1 78.1 67.3 10.3 14.6 1.51 0.453 0.502 0.787 0.926 0.634
CanESM5 [-] 78.5 78.3 67.3 12.4 16.0 1.98 0.409 0.497 0.716 0.860 0.596
CESM2 [-] 72.0 71.9 67.3 5.32 10.7 1.87 0.607 0.534 0.723 0.869 0.653
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 84.1 83.9 67.3 16.6 19.4 1.91 0.286 0.473 0.726 0.694 0.530
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 78.8 78.3 67.3 11.4 14.1 1.50 0.444 0.536 0.796 0.768 0.616
MeanCMIP6 [-] 78.0 77.8 67.3 10.8 12.7 1.41 0.439 0.596 0.805 0.671 0.621
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 76.7 76.8 67.3 9.76 13.1 1.52 0.455 0.569 0.783 0.937 0.663
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 81.3 81.5 67.3 14.2 16.1 1.51 0.340 0.559 0.798 0.886 0.628
NorESM2-LM [-] 71.4 71.6 67.3 5.02 10.7 1.70 0.623 0.516 0.756 0.889 0.660
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 77.7 77.8 67.3 10.8 13.0 1.25 0.461 0.608 0.835 0.682 0.639
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [%]
Model Period Mean (intersection) [%]
Benchmark Period Mean (intersection) [%]
Model Period Mean (complement) [%]
Benchmark Period Mean (complement) [%]
Bias [%]
RMSE [%]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Spatial Distribution Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 64.2
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 78.8 78.7 64.2 13.1 15.3 2.29 0.117 0.247 0.641 0.630 0.377
CanESM5 [-] 84.4 83.3 64.2 21.2 23.6 2.41 0.0507 0.249 0.629 0.602 0.356
CESM2 [-] 83.5 83.7 64.2 19.4 20.0 2.18 0.0119 0.274 0.669 0.996 0.445
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 85.3 85.3 64.2 21.1 21.8 1.93 0.0189 0.339 0.715 0.921 0.467
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 85.8 85.6 64.2 20.3 21.2 2.18 0.0199 0.315 0.666 0.830 0.429
MeanCMIP6 [-] 83.5 83.6 64.2 19.0 19.4 2.05 0.0147 0.334 0.691 0.987 0.472
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 89.5 89.0 64.2 24.1 25.0 2.34 0.0101 0.294 0.630 0.908 0.427
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 84.1 83.9 64.2 17.8 18.7 2.04 0.0437 0.361 0.691 0.656 0.422
NorESM2-LM [-] 80.4 80.3 64.2 16.2 17.5 2.08 0.0223 0.219 0.686 0.998 0.429
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 82.8 82.6 64.2 17.3 18.0 2.07 0.0231 0.312 0.689 0.980 0.463
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [%]
Model Period Mean (intersection) [%]
Benchmark Period Mean (intersection) [%]
Model Period Mean (complement) [%]
Benchmark Period Mean (complement) [%]
Bias [%]
RMSE [%]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Spatial Distribution Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 56.8
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 67.1 67.1 56.8 10.4 14.4 1.60 0.242 0.300 0.759 0.853 0.491
CanESM5 [-] 72.5 72.4 56.8 18.2 22.6 1.83 0.112 0.276 0.721 0.725 0.422
CESM2 [-] 66.3 66.3 56.8 11.3 14.4 1.53 0.223 0.363 0.770 0.759 0.495
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 73.3 73.4 56.8 16.6 19.0 1.36 0.106 0.297 0.798 0.941 0.488
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 71.1 70.5 56.8 14.7 18.3 1.81 0.148 0.255 0.726 0.877 0.452
MeanCMIP6 [-] 69.2 69.2 56.8 13.5 15.3 1.44 0.150 0.367 0.784 0.893 0.512
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 72.6 72.4 56.8 16.4 19.4 1.66 0.120 0.347 0.747 0.738 0.460
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 68.3 68.3 56.8 11.9 15.6 1.55 0.203 0.314 0.765 0.774 0.474
NorESM2-LM [-] 65.0 65.0 56.8 9.93 13.7 1.50 0.227 0.356 0.775 0.757 0.494
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 68.0 67.6 56.8 12.0 14.9 1.48 0.174 0.374 0.780 0.788 0.498
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [%]
Model Period Mean (intersection) [%]
Benchmark Period Mean (intersection) [%]
Model Period Mean (complement) [%]
Benchmark Period Mean (complement) [%]
Bias [%]
RMSE [%]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Spatial Distribution Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 75.1
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 91.6 91.6 75.1 17.2 21.0 2.67 0.456 0.528 0.587 0.512 0.522
CanESM5 [-] 84.3 84.2 75.1 10.4 17.0 2.66 0.625 0.517 0.577 0.552 0.557
CESM2 [-] 90.8 90.6 75.1 16.1 20.9 2.70 0.455 0.472 0.578 0.651 0.526
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 91.7 91.7 75.1 16.7 21.0 2.73 0.488 0.507 0.573 0.377 0.491
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 89.5 89.4 75.1 14.7 19.5 2.68 0.546 0.542 0.582 0.306 0.504
MeanCMIP6 [-] 91.0 90.9 75.1 16.3 19.9 2.69 0.490 0.544 0.581 0.397 0.511
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 89.7 89.5 75.1 15.2 21.0 2.90 0.480 0.490 0.531 0.469 0.492
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 93.5 93.5 75.1 19.2 23.9 2.86 0.384 0.509 0.547 0.745 0.539
NorESM2-LM [-] 92.2 91.6 75.1 17.3 21.7 2.66 0.424 0.469 0.586 0.692 0.528
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 94.1 94.1 75.1 19.6 23.9 2.80 0.404 0.479 0.559 0.624 0.509
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [%]
Model Period Mean (intersection) [%]
Benchmark Period Mean (intersection) [%]
Model Period Mean (complement) [%]
Benchmark Period Mean (complement) [%]
Bias [%]
RMSE [%]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Spatial Distribution Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 55.4
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 68.8 68.8 55.4 13.1 16.6 1.26 0.511 0.577 0.853 0.795 0.663
CanESM5 [-] 70.5 70.0 55.4 15.8 19.0 1.35 0.418 0.553 0.833 0.875 0.647
CESM2 [-] 61.3 61.3 55.4 6.69 13.6 1.41 0.572 0.582 0.811 0.801 0.669
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 71.3 71.2 55.4 15.8 19.3 1.49 0.381 0.545 0.797 0.889 0.631
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 72.0 71.9 55.4 16.6 19.3 1.17 0.404 0.612 0.861 0.784 0.654
MeanCMIP6 [-] 67.7 67.5 55.3 12.6 14.5 1.00 0.490 0.668 0.890 0.721 0.687
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 65.8 65.6 55.4 10.8 16.1 1.07 0.450 0.613 0.882 0.971 0.706
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 66.1 66.1 55.4 11.2 15.0 1.10 0.502 0.573 0.878 0.915 0.688
NorESM2-LM [-] 61.2 61.2 55.4 6.41 13.2 1.32 0.606 0.575 0.831 0.803 0.678
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 68.8 68.8 55.4 14.0 16.9 1.28 0.457 0.622 0.845 0.810 0.671

Temporally integrated period mean

BENCHMARK MEAN
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MODEL MEAN
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BIAS
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BIAS SCORE
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RMSE
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RMSE SCORE
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BENCHMARK MAX MONTH
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MODEL MAX MONTH
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DIFFERENCE IN MAX MONTH
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SEASONAL CYCLE SCORE
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SPATIAL TAYLOR DIAGRAM
Data not available
MODEL COLORS
Data not available

Spatially integrated regional mean

MODEL COLORS
Data not available
REGIONAL MEAN
Data not available
ANNUAL CYCLE
Data not available
MONTHLY ANOMALY
Data not available
ANNUAL CYCLE
Data not available

All Models

Benchmark
Data not available
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BCC-CSM2-MR
Data not available
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CanESM5
Data not available
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CESM2
Data not available
Data not available
GFDL-ESM4
Data not available
Data not available
IPSL-CM6A-LR
Data not available
Data not available
MeanCMIP6
Data not available
Data not available
MIROC-ESM2L
Data not available
Data not available
MPI-ESM1.2-HR
Data not available
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NorESM2-LM
Data not available
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UKESM1-0-LL
Data not available
Data not available

Data Information

  Title:
CRU time series (TS) high-resolution gridded datasets

  Version:
4.03

  Institutions:
Climatic Research Unit, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, UK

  Source:
monthly observations at meteorological stations across the world land areas

  History:
2019-09-10: downloaded source from https://crudata.uea.ac.uk/cru/data/hrg/cru_ts_4.03/
2019-11-15: estimate saturated vapor pressure using temperature
2019-11-15: calculate relative humidity using saturated vapor pressure and vapor pressure
2019-11-15: converted to ILAMB required netCDF with https://github.com/mmu2019/Datasets/blob/master/read-rhums-cru.py

  References:
Harris, I., P.D. Jones, T.J. Osborn and D.H. Lister (2014), Updated high-resolution grids of monthly climatic observations - the CRU TS3.10 Dataset, International Journal of Climatology, 34(3), 623-642, doi:10.1002/joc.3711

WMO CIMO Guide (2008), ANNEX 4.B. FORMULAE FOR THE COMPUTATION OF MEASURES OF HUMIDITY, MEASUREMENT OF HUMIDITY, Chapter 4, 163, https://library.wmo.int/doc_num.php?explnum_id=3151

  Comments:
time_period: 1980-01 through 2018-12
original_temporal_resolution: monthly
original_spatial_resolution: 0.5 degree
original_units: hPa
final_temporal_resolution: monthly
final_spatial_resolution: 0.5 degree
final_units: %

  Convention:
CF-1.7