Mean State

Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [watt/m2]
Model Period Mean (intersection) [watt/m2]
Benchmark Period Mean (intersection) [watt/m2]
Model Period Mean (complement) [watt/m2]
Benchmark Period Mean (complement) [watt/m2]
Bias [watt/m2]
RMSE [watt/m2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Spatial Distribution Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 28.2
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 29.9 30.2 28.2 23.1 1.76 12.7 0.554 0.843 0.697 0.944 0.742 0.784
CanESM5 [-] 29.5 29.7 28.2 21.4 1.47 15.1 0.767 0.822 0.637 0.913 0.696 0.741
CESM2 [-] 27.8 28.1 28.2 22.7 0.0280 12.4 0.537 0.850 0.697 0.944 0.759 0.789
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 37.2 37.9 28.2 28.8 9.71 14.3 0.431 0.702 0.745 0.960 0.806 0.791
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 31.7 32.1 28.2 23.8 4.04 10.8 0.619 0.813 0.766 0.935 0.778 0.811
MeanCMIP6 [-] 32.1 33.0 28.2 24.2 4.59 10.3 0.466 0.829 0.763 0.955 0.868 0.836
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 42.0 42.6 28.2 31.9 14.1 20.1 0.722 0.626 0.682 0.922 0.438 0.670
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 37.4 37.9 28.2 23.4 9.43 15.0 0.554 0.704 0.740 0.947 0.620 0.750
NorESM2-LM [-] 26.6 27.0 28.2 20.3 -1.25 13.4 0.595 0.845 0.674 0.937 0.754 0.777
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 30.7 30.8 28.2 24.0 2.48 12.3 0.560 0.863 0.690 0.943 0.836 0.805
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [watt/m2]
Model Period Mean (intersection) [watt/m2]
Benchmark Period Mean (intersection) [watt/m2]
Model Period Mean (complement) [watt/m2]
Benchmark Period Mean (complement) [watt/m2]
Bias [watt/m2]
RMSE [watt/m2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Spatial Distribution Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 48.9
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 41.4 49.3 48.9 15.4 2.05 18.2 1.20 0.638 0.528 0.799 0.955 0.690
CanESM5 [-] 44.0 52.0 48.9 17.9 5.85 23.9 1.41 0.525 0.463 0.763 0.919 0.626
CESM2 [-] 38.3 45.6 48.9 13.9 -1.44 16.8 1.18 0.647 0.555 0.788 0.974 0.704
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 49.8 55.1 48.9 37.2 6.17 18.6 1.20 0.604 0.521 0.771 0.978 0.679
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 43.6 52.5 48.9 14.4 5.75 17.9 1.14 0.621 0.547 0.811 0.960 0.697
MeanCMIP6 [-] 43.9 52.1 48.9 17.6 4.67 14.5 0.975 0.659 0.619 0.829 0.975 0.740
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 55.9 65.9 48.9 25.4 18.4 27.6 1.32 0.400 0.531 0.759 0.865 0.617
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 41.5 51.4 48.9 5.64 4.05 23.0 1.16 0.489 0.506 0.787 0.903 0.638
NorESM2-LM [-] 39.0 45.6 48.9 16.8 -1.16 18.3 1.21 0.607 0.549 0.787 0.963 0.691
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 41.4 49.6 48.9 14.3 2.76 18.5 1.17 0.587 0.557 0.790 0.930 0.684
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [watt/m2]
Model Period Mean (intersection) [watt/m2]
Benchmark Period Mean (intersection) [watt/m2]
Model Period Mean (complement) [watt/m2]
Benchmark Period Mean (complement) [watt/m2]
Bias [watt/m2]
RMSE [watt/m2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Spatial Distribution Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 33.1
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 21.4 31.0 33.1 7.59 0.208 20.2 1.33 0.547 0.521 0.808 0.618 0.603
CanESM5 [-] 26.4 35.7 33.1 9.79 5.94 26.6 1.59 0.425 0.454 0.765 0.507 0.521
CESM2 [-] 21.9 30.2 33.1 8.72 -0.646 17.7 1.29 0.589 0.556 0.825 0.680 0.641
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 26.5 34.2 33.1 16.3 1.16 18.9 1.39 0.570 0.509 0.812 0.659 0.612
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 28.3 38.8 33.1 7.85 8.28 24.9 1.34 0.444 0.495 0.814 0.521 0.554
MeanCMIP6 [-] 23.3 32.8 33.1 9.01 1.41 16.9 1.08 0.558 0.611 0.841 0.719 0.668
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 31.8 44.8 33.1 11.0 13.6 28.2 1.30 0.383 0.499 0.832 0.433 0.529
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 11.3 17.7 33.1 1.53 -12.2 24.1 1.33 0.417 0.503 0.807 0.558 0.558
NorESM2-LM [-] 22.7 31.0 33.1 8.43 0.591 20.8 1.33 0.497 0.541 0.825 0.597 0.600
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 18.5 25.8 33.1 6.89 -4.72 21.4 1.31 0.503 0.538 0.810 0.547 0.587
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [watt/m2]
Model Period Mean (intersection) [watt/m2]
Benchmark Period Mean (intersection) [watt/m2]
Model Period Mean (complement) [watt/m2]
Benchmark Period Mean (complement) [watt/m2]
Bias [watt/m2]
RMSE [watt/m2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Spatial Distribution Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 25.8
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 24.9 26.5 25.8 17.7 1.40 14.0 1.13 0.644 0.550 0.851 0.597 0.638
CanESM5 [-] 22.5 23.9 25.8 14.5 1.78 20.3 1.74 0.543 0.436 0.742 0.345 0.500
CESM2 [-] 22.2 23.4 25.8 16.7 -1.61 13.3 0.734 0.618 0.571 0.917 0.627 0.661
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 23.1 25.6 25.8 16.6 -0.194 15.1 1.17 0.632 0.496 0.852 0.608 0.617
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 24.5 27.7 25.8 11.3 3.45 18.0 1.05 0.526 0.494 0.873 0.402 0.558
MeanCMIP6 [-] 24.0 25.5 25.8 17.0 0.447 11.7 0.709 0.656 0.615 0.911 0.708 0.701
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 34.7 33.7 25.8 32.4 9.56 18.2 0.909 0.553 0.547 0.879 0.341 0.574
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 16.6 19.1 25.8 7.86 -5.56 18.2 1.26 0.569 0.415 0.824 0.575 0.559
NorESM2-LM [-] 21.8 22.4 25.8 17.2 -1.84 15.6 0.852 0.554 0.551 0.891 0.493 0.608
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 20.3 22.5 25.8 15.1 -1.82 16.4 1.13 0.559 0.524 0.858 0.412 0.575
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [watt/m2]
Model Period Mean (intersection) [watt/m2]
Benchmark Period Mean (intersection) [watt/m2]
Model Period Mean (complement) [watt/m2]
Benchmark Period Mean (complement) [watt/m2]
Bias [watt/m2]
RMSE [watt/m2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Spatial Distribution Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 47.9
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 62.7 67.0 47.9 52.4 17.1 29.1 1.78 0.424 0.375 0.713 0.742 0.526
CanESM5 [-] 55.9 65.4 47.9 47.3 17.7 34.4 2.56 0.351 0.258 0.581 0.710 0.432
CESM2 [-] 52.4 55.3 47.9 50.9 9.10 22.9 1.99 0.448 0.415 0.663 0.794 0.547
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 67.8 68.3 47.9 63.0 20.5 26.7 1.47 0.336 0.425 0.738 0.838 0.552
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 43.9 48.5 47.9 44.2 5.05 27.2 2.28 0.432 0.312 0.611 0.729 0.479
MeanCMIP6 [-] 64.8 66.0 47.9 54.7 17.0 26.1 1.86 0.386 0.429 0.672 0.824 0.548
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 85.9 93.7 47.9 75.6 43.0 52.7 2.82 0.148 0.355 0.522 0.676 0.411
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 61.8 66.1 47.9 47.0 19.1 27.6 1.53 0.348 0.386 0.762 0.704 0.517
NorESM2-LM [-] 54.8 56.4 47.9 46.6 8.91 23.1 1.67 0.423 0.400 0.721 0.756 0.540
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 66.0 67.6 47.9 46.8 16.9 28.7 2.02 0.395 0.416 0.678 0.701 0.521
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [watt/m2]
Model Period Mean (intersection) [watt/m2]
Benchmark Period Mean (intersection) [watt/m2]
Model Period Mean (complement) [watt/m2]
Benchmark Period Mean (complement) [watt/m2]
Bias [watt/m2]
RMSE [watt/m2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Spatial Distribution Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 47.2
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 49.7 49.5 47.2 59.7 3.35 17.7 0.919 0.791 0.655 0.881 0.901 0.777
CanESM5 [-] 55.7 54.7 47.2 60.5 9.11 20.6 1.06 0.714 0.644 0.857 0.780 0.728
CESM2 [-] 45.4 44.9 47.2 56.9 -0.488 15.5 0.808 0.779 0.704 0.897 0.897 0.796
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 57.7 58.0 47.2 62.1 10.8 17.2 0.615 0.702 0.723 0.922 0.895 0.793
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 50.6 50.5 47.2 57.8 5.12 14.9 0.761 0.797 0.710 0.899 0.818 0.787
MeanCMIP6 [-] 53.6 53.9 47.2 61.2 7.60 14.2 0.656 0.777 0.746 0.917 0.916 0.820
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 67.3 66.6 47.2 69.1 20.5 28.7 1.08 0.545 0.639 0.852 0.705 0.676
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 60.7 60.8 47.2 60.8 13.7 20.7 0.637 0.640 0.706 0.920 0.861 0.767
NorESM2-LM [-] 45.2 45.9 47.2 55.4 0.360 16.0 0.771 0.781 0.691 0.904 0.877 0.789
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 52.1 51.9 47.2 60.4 6.05 15.7 0.768 0.776 0.709 0.905 0.835 0.787
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [watt/m2]
Model Period Mean (intersection) [watt/m2]
Benchmark Period Mean (intersection) [watt/m2]
Model Period Mean (complement) [watt/m2]
Benchmark Period Mean (complement) [watt/m2]
Bias [watt/m2]
RMSE [watt/m2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Spatial Distribution Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 103.
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 113. 112. 103. 121. 10.4 21.6 2.61 0.377 0.284 0.587 0.990 0.505
CanESM5 [-] 110. 107. 103. 116. 6.63 29.4 2.44 0.290 0.253 0.617 0.908 0.464
CESM2 [-] 96.9 96.7 103. 101. -5.42 15.6 2.17 0.412 0.423 0.664 0.845 0.553
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 111. 110. 103. 116. 6.95 20.1 2.34 0.388 0.332 0.630 0.976 0.532
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 99.1 100. 103. 96.5 -2.29 20.6 2.02 0.339 0.335 0.703 0.941 0.530
MeanCMIP6 [-] 111. 111. 103. 112. 8.07 15.3 1.91 0.424 0.472 0.711 0.883 0.592
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 136. 134. 103. 128. 28.6 33.6 2.64 0.132 0.400 0.571 0.985 0.498
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 124. 123. 103. 116. 19.1 35.9 2.47 0.140 0.291 0.594 0.695 0.402
NorESM2-LM [-] 98.0 97.8 103. 106. -3.64 15.0 2.03 0.368 0.416 0.689 0.814 0.541
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 115. 115. 103. 111. 11.8 19.0 2.47 0.369 0.403 0.594 0.974 0.548
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [watt/m2]
Model Period Mean (intersection) [watt/m2]
Benchmark Period Mean (intersection) [watt/m2]
Model Period Mean (complement) [watt/m2]
Benchmark Period Mean (complement) [watt/m2]
Bias [watt/m2]
RMSE [watt/m2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Spatial Distribution Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 80.2
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 81.5 80.1 80.2 113. 2.47 22.8 1.68 0.586 0.475 0.751 0.895 0.636
CanESM5 [-] 87.1 86.1 80.2 108. 9.34 33.0 1.87 0.429 0.388 0.705 0.891 0.560
CESM2 [-] 76.0 74.9 80.2 102. -2.50 21.4 1.85 0.602 0.488 0.697 0.951 0.645
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 88.4 85.1 80.2 120. 4.94 24.6 2.03 0.574 0.416 0.659 0.989 0.611
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 87.1 85.1 80.2 101. 7.62 21.2 1.65 0.606 0.484 0.749 0.967 0.658
MeanCMIP6 [-] 86.0 85.0 80.2 111. 6.53 17.5 1.53 0.625 0.559 0.762 0.991 0.699
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 107. 106. 80.2 113. 26.9 36.5 2.04 0.314 0.480 0.672 0.896 0.568
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 84.2 84.3 80.2 75.1 6.53 32.3 1.73 0.414 0.422 0.712 0.722 0.539
NorESM2-LM [-] 76.5 75.0 80.2 103. -1.76 22.4 1.93 0.558 0.494 0.692 0.938 0.635
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 85.5 84.0 80.2 107. 6.44 24.8 1.73 0.499 0.496 0.718 0.833 0.608
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [watt/m2]
Model Period Mean (intersection) [watt/m2]
Benchmark Period Mean (intersection) [watt/m2]
Model Period Mean (complement) [watt/m2]
Benchmark Period Mean (complement) [watt/m2]
Bias [watt/m2]
RMSE [watt/m2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Spatial Distribution Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 18.2
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 13.9 16.5 18.2 3.84 -2.03 13.2 0.784 0.872 0.637 0.937 0.939 0.804
CanESM5 [-] 14.6 17.4 18.2 4.29 -1.33 14.2 0.840 0.880 0.607 0.919 0.947 0.792
CESM2 [-] 13.1 15.6 18.2 3.41 -2.74 13.3 0.790 0.850 0.646 0.934 0.879 0.791
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 21.5 26.0 18.2 7.64 7.78 11.7 0.506 0.739 0.785 0.961 0.831 0.820
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 18.1 21.6 18.2 4.56 2.99 10.5 0.762 0.844 0.741 0.935 0.848 0.822
MeanCMIP6 [-] 16.6 19.7 18.2 4.92 1.08 10.0 0.677 0.898 0.720 0.945 0.937 0.844
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 21.6 24.9 18.2 8.77 6.07 13.0 0.751 0.768 0.692 0.936 0.740 0.766
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 18.3 22.1 18.2 2.98 3.62 10.5 0.692 0.817 0.752 0.940 0.740 0.800
NorESM2-LM [-] 11.5 14.1 18.2 3.08 -4.55 15.4 0.844 0.813 0.595 0.925 0.932 0.772
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 15.6 18.1 18.2 5.23 -0.435 11.7 0.718 0.896 0.674 0.937 0.978 0.832
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [watt/m2]
Model Period Mean (intersection) [watt/m2]
Benchmark Period Mean (intersection) [watt/m2]
Model Period Mean (complement) [watt/m2]
Benchmark Period Mean (complement) [watt/m2]
Bias [watt/m2]
RMSE [watt/m2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Spatial Distribution Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 39.8
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 42.0 41.6 39.8 48.2 3.27 16.1 0.836 0.744 0.637 0.885 0.850 0.751
CanESM5 [-] 44.9 43.7 39.8 47.1 6.08 20.0 1.14 0.678 0.586 0.848 0.736 0.687
CESM2 [-] 38.8 38.4 39.8 48.6 0.0507 16.3 0.782 0.724 0.631 0.903 0.868 0.752
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 48.8 47.8 39.8 68.0 8.12 17.1 0.757 0.693 0.654 0.912 0.834 0.749
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 45.8 44.7 39.8 45.5 6.59 16.6 0.775 0.695 0.650 0.907 0.831 0.747
MeanCMIP6 [-] 44.6 44.1 39.8 53.8 5.39 13.5 0.580 0.746 0.707 0.925 0.901 0.797
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 56.6 55.8 39.8 64.8 17.5 26.8 0.846 0.510 0.593 0.883 0.584 0.633
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 42.2 42.5 39.8 35.5 4.16 19.5 0.770 0.684 0.580 0.900 0.785 0.706
NorESM2-LM [-] 39.6 38.3 39.8 50.8 0.414 17.5 0.748 0.699 0.622 0.906 0.785 0.727
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 41.2 40.9 39.8 48.8 2.81 16.4 0.778 0.714 0.651 0.902 0.798 0.743

Temporally integrated period mean

BENCHMARK MEAN
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MODEL MEAN
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BIAS
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BIAS SCORE
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RMSE
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RMSE SCORE
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BENCHMARK MAX MONTH
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MODEL MAX MONTH
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DIFFERENCE IN MAX MONTH
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SEASONAL CYCLE SCORE
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SPATIAL TAYLOR DIAGRAM
Data not available
MODEL COLORS
Data not available

Spatially integrated regional mean

MODEL COLORS
Data not available
REGIONAL MEAN
Data not available
ANNUAL CYCLE
Data not available
MONTHLY ANOMALY
Data not available
ANNUAL CYCLE
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All Models

Benchmark
Data not available
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BCC-CSM2-MR
Data not available
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CanESM5
Data not available
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CESM2
Data not available
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GFDL-ESM4
Data not available
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IPSL-CM6A-LR
Data not available
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MeanCMIP6
Data not available
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MIROC-ESM2L
Data not available
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MPI-ESM1.2-HR
Data not available
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NorESM2-LM
Data not available
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UKESM1-0-LL
Data not available
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Data Information

  Title:
FLUXCOM (RS+METEO) Global Land Energy Fluxes using GSWP3 climate data

  Version:
1

  Institutions:
Department Biogeochemical Integration, Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Germany

  Source:
Data generated by machine learning to merge energy flux measurements from FLUXNET eddy covariance towers with MODIS remote sensing and GSWP3v1 meteorological data (RS+METEO)

  History:
2019-05-07: downloaded source from doi:10.17871/FLUXCOM_EnergyFluxes_v1
2019-06-28: converted to netCDF with https://github.com/mmu2019/Datasets/blob/master/read-le-fluxcom.py

  References:
Jung, M., S. Koirala, U. Weber, K. Ichii, F. Gans, G. Camps-Valls, D. Papale, C. Schwalm, G. Tramontana, M. Reichstein (2019), The FLUXCOM ensemble of global land-atmosphere energy fluxes, Scientific Data, submitted, 1-12, https://arxiv.org/abs/1812.04951

Tramontana, G., M. Jung, C.R. Schwalm, K. Ichii, G. Camps-Valls, B. Raduly, M. Reichstein, M.A. Arain, A. Cescatti, G. Kiely, L. Merbold, P. Serrano-Ortiz, S. Sickert, S. Wolf, and D. Papale (2016), Predicting carbon dioxide and energy fluxes across global FLUXNET sites with regression algorithms, Biogeosciences, 13, 4291-4313, doi:10.5194/bg-13-4291-2016

  Comments:
time_period: 1980-01 through 2014-12
original_temporal_resolution: monthly
original_spatial_resolution: 0.5 degree
original_units: MJ/m2/day
final_temporal_resolution: monthly
final_spatial_resolution: 0.5 degree
final_units: watt/m2

  Convention:
CF-1.7