Mean State

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Period Mean (original grids) [W m-2]
Bias [W m-2]
RMSE [W m-2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 26.5
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 33.9 7.45 21.1 0.383 0.705 0.481 0.961 0.657
CanESM5 [-] 33.7 7.24 23.8 0.341 0.694 0.430 0.942 0.624
CESM2 [-] 30.7 4.24 18.5 0.297 0.770 0.510 0.972 0.691
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 42.6 16.1 28.6 0.297 0.573 0.427 0.980 0.602
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 35.0 8.55 21.7 0.510 0.677 0.478 0.935 0.642
MeanCMIP6 [-] 36.4 9.94 20.7 0.212 0.689 0.508 0.982 0.672
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 48.1 21.6 31.4 0.887 0.448 0.422 0.928 0.555
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 36.7 10.2 24.7 0.424 0.655 0.431 0.970 0.622
NorESM2-LM [-] 32.6 6.13 20.7 0.508 0.759 0.498 0.953 0.677
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 35.4 8.86 22.8 0.212 0.680 0.456 0.982 0.644
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [W m-2]
Bias [W m-2]
RMSE [W m-2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 40.1
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 49.7 9.53 30.7 1.29 0.582 0.388 0.804 0.541
CanESM5 [-] 51.7 11.5 34.4 1.17 0.546 0.353 0.818 0.517
CESM2 [-] 45.6 5.52 28.7 1.21 0.620 0.411 0.814 0.564
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 55.3 15.1 33.6 0.946 0.540 0.385 0.851 0.540
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 52.8 12.7 33.2 1.05 0.555 0.379 0.838 0.538
MeanCMIP6 [-] 52.0 11.8 28.7 0.937 0.576 0.438 0.863 0.579
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 63.2 23.1 38.2 1.10 0.410 0.385 0.846 0.507
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 51.7 11.5 37.0 1.10 0.500 0.338 0.826 0.501
NorESM2-LM [-] 46.9 6.80 29.3 1.06 0.618 0.414 0.874 0.580
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 48.7 8.61 30.7 1.09 0.588 0.388 0.821 0.546
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [W m-2]
Bias [W m-2]
RMSE [W m-2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 36.8
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 37.4 0.591 41.2 1.79 0.420 0.344 0.837 0.486
CanESM5 [-] 45.6 8.87 46.1 1.91 0.429 0.268 0.760 0.431
CESM2 [-] 26.9 -9.87 33.7 1.46 0.439 0.378 0.824 0.505
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 38.8 2.04 46.5 2.70 0.435 0.309 0.569 0.405
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 48.0 11.2 52.0 2.49 0.412 0.276 0.644 0.402
MeanCMIP6 [-] 42.3 5.49 41.0 1.91 0.445 0.360 0.748 0.478
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 45.9 9.09 41.2 1.35 0.409 0.313 0.819 0.464
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 33.2 -3.60 51.8 2.80 0.311 0.314 0.549 0.372
NorESM2-LM [-] 44.8 8.05 48.4 1.91 0.389 0.316 0.756 0.444
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 37.0 0.222 46.8 2.25 0.432 0.303 0.621 0.415
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [W m-2]
Bias [W m-2]
RMSE [W m-2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 22.7
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 28.6 5.93 24.8 3.19 0.650 0.277 0.417 0.405
CanESM5 [-] 32.1 9.38 29.4 1.46 0.627 0.242 0.803 0.479
CESM2 [-] 29.4 6.72 26.0 2.33 0.612 0.262 0.581 0.429
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 37.5 14.8 28.4 0.731 0.471 0.272 0.898 0.478
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 51.9 29.2 39.4 0.731 0.254 0.223 0.898 0.400
MeanCMIP6 [-] 35.6 12.8 23.1 0.586 0.521 0.353 0.906 0.533
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 38.5 15.8 24.9 0.586 0.451 0.347 0.941 0.521
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 34.5 11.8 29.7 1.17 0.530 0.204 0.816 0.439
NorESM2-LM [-] 35.2 12.5 29.7 2.48 0.566 0.233 0.616 0.412
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 23.8 1.07 22.5 0.876 0.708 0.319 0.856 0.550
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [W m-2]
Bias [W m-2]
RMSE [W m-2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 37.7
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 50.7 13.0 28.3 0.846 0.653 0.461 0.912 0.622
CanESM5 [-] 55.5 17.9 32.7 0.603 0.593 0.431 0.935 0.597
CESM2 [-] 44.3 6.65 24.0 0.646 0.718 0.505 0.932 0.665
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 56.2 18.6 31.2 0.518 0.575 0.467 0.949 0.615
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 48.7 11.1 29.5 0.606 0.623 0.449 0.944 0.616
MeanCMIP6 [-] 52.8 15.1 26.7 0.431 0.619 0.516 0.962 0.653
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 63.5 25.9 36.6 0.889 0.444 0.452 0.904 0.563
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 59.2 21.6 36.0 0.474 0.525 0.423 0.965 0.584
NorESM2-LM [-] 45.2 7.58 24.1 0.763 0.703 0.499 0.934 0.659
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 50.3 12.7 28.0 0.488 0.649 0.477 0.951 0.639
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [W m-2]
Bias [W m-2]
RMSE [W m-2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 82.2
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 116. 33.8 41.6 1.02 0.280 0.376 0.933 0.491
CanESM5 [-] 109. 27.2 36.4 1.02 0.376 0.350 0.933 0.502
CESM2 [-] 96.3 14.2 30.6 2.02 0.665 0.336 0.752 0.522
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 101. 19.3 31.4 0.00 0.531 0.368 1.00 0.567
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 99.5 17.3 31.4 5.03 0.579 0.333 0.0717 0.329
MeanCMIP6 [-] 114. 31.7 40.4 0.00 0.307 0.333 1.00 0.493
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 129. 47.0 53.8 0.00 0.157 0.354 1.00 0.466
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 136. 53.8 64.8 5.10 0.117 0.229 0.0631 0.160
NorESM2-LM [-] 93.1 10.9 29.4 1.03 0.676 0.326 0.930 0.564
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 116. 33.6 45.6 2.02 0.284 0.245 0.752 0.381
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [W m-2]
Bias [W m-2]
RMSE [W m-2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 68.7
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 89.0 20.4 40.6 1.88 0.417 0.261 0.709 0.412
CanESM5 [-] 86.5 17.8 49.5 1.67 0.337 0.217 0.761 0.383
CESM2 [-] 86.3 17.7 36.9 2.01 0.509 0.313 0.678 0.453
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 85.8 17.2 41.7 1.92 0.444 0.247 0.673 0.403
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 99.4 30.8 49.9 2.31 0.353 0.259 0.645 0.379
MeanCMIP6 [-] 87.6 18.9 36.3 1.78 0.493 0.323 0.728 0.467
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 109. 40.6 53.7 2.07 0.192 0.288 0.669 0.359
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 72.1 3.46 53.0 1.93 0.308 0.194 0.688 0.346
NorESM2-LM [-] 93.1 24.4 44.7 1.63 0.406 0.311 0.790 0.455
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 84.6 15.9 41.4 2.06 0.480 0.252 0.658 0.410
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [W m-2]
Bias [W m-2]
RMSE [W m-2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 12.0
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 8.06 -3.89 11.3 0.635 0.744 0.466 0.972 0.662
CanESM5 [-] 11.4 -0.519 15.8 2.16 0.824 0.362 0.758 0.576
CESM2 [-] 12.1 0.118 14.1 1.40 0.780 0.405 0.889 0.620
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 19.3 7.35 16.8 1.40 0.751 0.413 0.909 0.621
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 13.9 1.92 16.5 1.78 0.851 0.356 0.849 0.603
MeanCMIP6 [-] 13.6 1.65 13.7 1.52 0.808 0.433 0.900 0.644
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 18.1 6.15 17.1 1.40 0.752 0.380 0.886 0.600
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 9.45 -2.51 13.8 0.508 0.787 0.390 0.975 0.636
NorESM2-LM [-] 10.6 -1.37 15.0 1.65 0.682 0.422 0.835 0.590
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 12.6 0.612 13.8 1.40 0.752 0.431 0.903 0.629
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [W m-2]
Bias [W m-2]
RMSE [W m-2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 42.7
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 47.9 5.25 34.5 1.73 0.600 0.372 0.716 0.515
CanESM5 [-] 48.3 5.60 36.4 1.78 0.585 0.347 0.703 0.496
CESM2 [-] 46.1 3.39 36.3 1.78 0.559 0.363 0.743 0.507
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 55.9 13.3 36.4 1.16 0.559 0.382 0.839 0.540
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 52.4 9.72 34.8 1.02 0.589 0.376 0.879 0.555
MeanCMIP6 [-] 50.8 8.11 31.8 1.44 0.577 0.426 0.809 0.559
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 61.7 19.0 40.7 1.18 0.485 0.376 0.850 0.522
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 48.4 5.76 37.9 1.47 0.575 0.326 0.804 0.508
NorESM2-LM [-] 43.3 0.629 32.2 1.13 0.638 0.393 0.869 0.573
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 46.6 3.90 33.4 1.63 0.586 0.378 0.763 0.526

Temporally integrated period mean

BENCHMARK MEAN
Data not available
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MODEL MEAN
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BIAS
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BIAS SCORE
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RMSE
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RMSE SCORE
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BENCHMARK MAX MONTH
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MODEL MAX MONTH
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DIFFERENCE IN MAX MONTH
Data not available
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SEASONAL CYCLE SCORE
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Spatially integrated regional mean

MODEL COLORS
Data not available
REGIONAL MEAN
Data not available
ANNUAL CYCLE
Data not available
MONTHLY ANOMALY
Data not available
ANNUAL CYCLE
Data not available

All Models

Benchmark
Data not available
Data not available
BCC-CSM2-MR
Data not available
Data not available
CanESM5
Data not available
Data not available
CESM2
Data not available
Data not available
GFDL-ESM4
Data not available
Data not available
IPSL-CM6A-LR
Data not available
Data not available
MeanCMIP6
Data not available
Data not available
MIROC-ESM2L
Data not available
Data not available
MPI-ESM1.2-HR
Data not available
Data not available
NorESM2-LM
Data not available
Data not available
UKESM1-0-LL
Data not available
Data not available

Data Information

  Title:
FluxNet Tower eddy covariance measurements (Tier 1)

  Version:
2015

  Institutions:
FluxNet, AmeriFlux, AfriFlux, AsiaFlux, ChinaFlux, Fluxnet-Canada, KoFlux, CarboAfrica, CarboEuropeIP, CarboItaly, CarboMont, GreenGrass, OzFlux-TERN, LBA, NECC, ICOS, TCOS-Siberia, and USCCC

  References:
Reichstein, M., D. Papale, R. Valentini, M. Aubinet, C. Bernhofer, A. Knohl, T. Laurila, A. Lindroth, E. Moors, K. Pilegaard, and G. Seufert (2007), Determinants of terrestrialecosystem carbon balance inferred from European eddy covarianceflux sites, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L01402, doi:10.1029/2006GL027880

Lasslop, G., M. Reichstein, D. Papale, A.D. Richardson, A. Arneth, A. Barr, P. Stoy, and G. Wohlfahrt (2010), Separation of net ecosystem exchange into assimilation and respiration using a light response curve approach: critical issues and global evaluation, Global Change Biology, 16, 187-208, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.02041.x

Knauer, J., S. Zaehle, B.E. Medlyn, M. Reichstein, C.A. Williams, M. Migliavacca, M.G. De Kauwe, C. Werner, C. Keitel, P. Kolari, J.-M. Limousin, and M.-L. Linderson (2018), Towards physiologically meaningful water use efficiency estimates from eddy covariance data, Global Change Biology, 24(2), 694-710, doi:10.1111/gcb.13893

  Comment:
Fluxnet variable(s) used: LE_F_MDS