Mean State

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Period Mean (original grids) [W m-2]
Bias [W m-2]
RMSE [W m-2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 27.2
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 17.4 -9.78 27.5 1.87 0.576 0.429 0.781 0.554
CanESM5 [-] 17.8 -9.47 23.1 0.933 0.639 0.485 0.920 0.632
CESM2 [-] 26.1 -1.13 20.2 0.635 0.723 0.486 0.949 0.661
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 8.82 -18.4 29.6 1.02 0.428 0.446 0.914 0.559
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 23.5 -3.69 23.4 1.10 0.711 0.429 0.923 0.623
MeanCMIP6 [-] 19.3 -7.97 20.1 0.635 0.663 0.518 0.954 0.663
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 8.88 -18.3 27.0 0.805 0.466 0.479 0.909 0.583
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 25.0 -2.25 25.0 0.212 0.658 0.425 0.988 0.624
NorESM2-LM [-] 28.0 0.804 24.0 0.592 0.687 0.477 0.963 0.651
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 20.2 -7.03 21.3 0.339 0.630 0.502 0.974 0.652
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [W m-2]
Bias [W m-2]
RMSE [W m-2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 30.6
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 28.8 -1.78 33.0 1.62 0.584 0.347 0.783 0.515
CanESM5 [-] 28.0 -2.62 27.6 1.38 0.641 0.399 0.845 0.571
CESM2 [-] 34.6 4.00 26.7 1.17 0.664 0.412 0.862 0.588
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 18.7 -12.0 30.5 1.56 0.511 0.390 0.792 0.521
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 29.4 -1.20 27.5 1.46 0.662 0.387 0.823 0.565
MeanCMIP6 [-] 28.1 -2.49 25.1 1.22 0.646 0.438 0.852 0.594
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 21.3 -9.37 29.6 1.31 0.548 0.399 0.826 0.543
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 32.7 2.07 34.3 1.55 0.571 0.325 0.783 0.501
NorESM2-LM [-] 34.5 3.89 27.4 1.28 0.651 0.409 0.831 0.575
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 28.5 -2.13 27.2 1.25 0.628 0.404 0.852 0.572
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [W m-2]
Bias [W m-2]
RMSE [W m-2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 60.7
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 67.2 6.52 46.1 1.91 0.510 0.335 0.757 0.484
CanESM5 [-] 57.7 -3.03 34.0 1.01 0.566 0.395 0.930 0.572
CESM2 [-] 70.8 10.1 31.4 1.47 0.673 0.431 0.830 0.591
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 58.6 -2.10 40.8 1.58 0.486 0.378 0.829 0.518
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 60.2 -0.447 40.2 1.69 0.502 0.381 0.824 0.522
MeanCMIP6 [-] 61.0 0.307 35.5 1.24 0.530 0.439 0.882 0.573
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 58.8 -1.88 37.3 1.46 0.484 0.446 0.862 0.560
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 70.6 9.88 50.6 2.81 0.462 0.296 0.577 0.408
NorESM2-LM [-] 61.0 0.312 37.5 1.58 0.547 0.396 0.833 0.543
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 58.8 -1.88 36.2 1.46 0.545 0.407 0.824 0.546
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [W m-2]
Bias [W m-2]
RMSE [W m-2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 58.5
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 63.7 5.18 34.9 0.726 0.687 0.331 0.953 0.576
CanESM5 [-] 51.8 -6.73 28.4 0.583 0.633 0.417 0.960 0.607
CESM2 [-] 62.0 3.53 25.8 0.581 0.707 0.459 0.966 0.648
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 54.5 -4.05 30.0 0.729 0.731 0.407 0.953 0.624
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 52.9 -5.57 31.6 1.31 0.624 0.378 0.870 0.563
MeanCMIP6 [-] 57.7 -0.849 24.8 0.581 0.727 0.462 0.966 0.654
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 57.1 -1.36 24.4 0.290 0.738 0.440 0.979 0.649
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 66.0 7.50 33.4 0.729 0.716 0.319 0.953 0.577
NorESM2-LM [-] 59.1 0.601 26.1 1.16 0.727 0.436 0.876 0.619
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 57.0 -1.47 25.7 0.436 0.701 0.478 0.973 0.658
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [W m-2]
Bias [W m-2]
RMSE [W m-2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 24.8
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 17.3 -7.49 30.4 1.96 0.597 0.360 0.713 0.508
CanESM5 [-] 19.4 -5.43 24.8 1.53 0.638 0.431 0.804 0.576
CESM2 [-] 27.1 2.25 25.5 1.23 0.663 0.426 0.831 0.587
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 6.71 -18.1 29.2 2.01 0.431 0.415 0.666 0.482
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 23.1 -1.72 27.3 1.68 0.661 0.380 0.760 0.545
MeanCMIP6 [-] 18.5 -6.35 23.1 1.48 0.638 0.455 0.795 0.586
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 13.3 -11.5 27.0 1.71 0.565 0.419 0.712 0.529
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 16.8 -7.98 28.0 1.81 0.616 0.390 0.759 0.539
NorESM2-LM [-] 27.8 2.99 25.6 1.36 0.650 0.422 0.788 0.571
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 19.2 -5.58 25.0 1.56 0.627 0.418 0.782 0.561
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [W m-2]
Bias [W m-2]
RMSE [W m-2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 32.1
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 16.9 -15.2 22.0 0.00 0.455 0.473 1.00 0.600
CanESM5 [-] 30.1 -1.93 14.7 0.00 0.898 0.484 1.00 0.716
CESM2 [-] 30.6 -1.45 13.7 0.00 0.921 0.501 1.00 0.731
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 24.5 -7.52 18.5 1.02 0.670 0.432 0.933 0.617
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 28.9 -3.12 17.2 0.00 0.843 0.429 1.00 0.675
MeanCMIP6 [-] 17.7 -14.4 21.8 0.00 0.473 0.472 1.00 0.604
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 3.77 -28.3 34.5 0.00 0.240 0.404 1.00 0.512
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 26.5 -5.52 20.9 0.00 0.744 0.353 1.00 0.612
NorESM2-LM [-] 30.8 -1.29 14.4 1.02 0.929 0.490 0.933 0.710
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 16.3 -15.7 23.4 1.02 0.442 0.467 0.933 0.577
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [W m-2]
Bias [W m-2]
RMSE [W m-2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 38.0
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 53.1 15.0 31.7 0.873 0.419 0.289 0.910 0.476
CanESM5 [-] 44.0 6.01 33.5 0.916 0.609 0.259 0.907 0.509
CESM2 [-] 46.5 8.51 27.6 1.11 0.497 0.299 0.872 0.492
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 36.9 -1.14 26.3 1.49 0.602 0.304 0.828 0.509
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 38.8 0.715 25.7 1.30 0.637 0.325 0.868 0.539
MeanCMIP6 [-] 46.1 8.09 24.9 1.11 0.593 0.357 0.864 0.543
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 27.7 -10.3 29.5 0.868 0.407 0.310 0.927 0.489
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 61.5 23.5 48.3 1.64 0.258 0.185 0.791 0.355
NorESM2-LM [-] 45.0 6.99 29.7 1.35 0.582 0.300 0.821 0.501
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 44.3 6.29 31.8 1.26 0.497 0.266 0.837 0.467
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [W m-2]
Bias [W m-2]
RMSE [W m-2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 3.19
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] -7.69 -10.9 22.2 0.508 0.338 0.391 1.01 0.532
CanESM5 [-] 4.59 1.40 25.8 2.41 0.891 0.541 1.11 0.771
CESM2 [-] 6.17 2.99 24.8 0.885 0.780 0.570 1.29 0.803
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 11.7 8.48 27.4 1.26 1.24 0.510 1.39 0.912
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 4.64 1.45 25.6 1.39 0.941 0.411 1.18 0.735
MeanCMIP6 [-] 6.28 3.10 24.4 1.14 0.895 0.549 1.33 0.830
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 7.15 3.96 28.9 1.14 0.779 0.571 1.33 0.811
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] -0.532 -3.72 22.1 0.508 0.711 0.392 1.01 0.625
NorESM2-LM [-] 5.86 2.68 26.4 1.78 0.838 0.564 1.35 0.830
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 9.60 6.41 24.6 1.77 1.09 0.480 1.03 0.770
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [W m-2]
Bias [W m-2]
RMSE [W m-2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 31.4
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 33.3 1.89 37.8 1.64 0.649 0.333 0.755 0.518
CanESM5 [-] 32.2 0.796 30.6 1.66 0.670 0.392 0.781 0.558
CESM2 [-] 38.1 6.73 31.0 1.49 0.695 0.403 0.837 0.584
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 21.3 -10.1 33.7 1.49 0.521 0.382 0.798 0.521
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 31.7 0.334 28.5 1.50 0.701 0.408 0.811 0.582
MeanCMIP6 [-] 31.7 0.339 28.5 1.39 0.690 0.424 0.825 0.591
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 26.2 -5.15 33.8 1.44 0.605 0.369 0.811 0.538
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 38.5 7.10 39.7 1.82 0.622 0.298 0.745 0.490
NorESM2-LM [-] 38.3 6.87 29.9 1.41 0.671 0.413 0.814 0.578
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 32.1 0.733 30.1 1.31 0.692 0.396 0.862 0.587

Temporally integrated period mean

BENCHMARK MEAN
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MODEL MEAN
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BIAS
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BIAS SCORE
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RMSE
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RMSE SCORE
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BENCHMARK MAX MONTH
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MODEL MAX MONTH
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DIFFERENCE IN MAX MONTH
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SEASONAL CYCLE SCORE
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Spatially integrated regional mean

MODEL COLORS
Data not available
REGIONAL MEAN
Data not available
ANNUAL CYCLE
Data not available
MONTHLY ANOMALY
Data not available
ANNUAL CYCLE
Data not available

All Models

Benchmark
Data not available
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BCC-CSM2-MR
Data not available
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CanESM5
Data not available
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CESM2
Data not available
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GFDL-ESM4
Data not available
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IPSL-CM6A-LR
Data not available
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MeanCMIP6
Data not available
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MIROC-ESM2L
Data not available
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MPI-ESM1.2-HR
Data not available
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NorESM2-LM
Data not available
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UKESM1-0-LL
Data not available
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Data Information

  Title:
FluxNet Tower eddy covariance measurements (Tier 1)

  Version:
2015

  Institutions:
FluxNet, AmeriFlux, AfriFlux, AsiaFlux, ChinaFlux, Fluxnet-Canada, KoFlux, CarboAfrica, CarboEuropeIP, CarboItaly, CarboMont, GreenGrass, OzFlux-TERN, LBA, NECC, ICOS, TCOS-Siberia, and USCCC

  References:
Reichstein, M., D. Papale, R. Valentini, M. Aubinet, C. Bernhofer, A. Knohl, T. Laurila, A. Lindroth, E. Moors, K. Pilegaard, and G. Seufert (2007), Determinants of terrestrialecosystem carbon balance inferred from European eddy covarianceflux sites, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L01402, doi:10.1029/2006GL027880

Lasslop, G., M. Reichstein, D. Papale, A.D. Richardson, A. Arneth, A. Barr, P. Stoy, and G. Wohlfahrt (2010), Separation of net ecosystem exchange into assimilation and respiration using a light response curve approach: critical issues and global evaluation, Global Change Biology, 16, 187-208, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.02041.x

Knauer, J., S. Zaehle, B.E. Medlyn, M. Reichstein, C.A. Williams, M. Migliavacca, M.G. De Kauwe, C. Werner, C. Keitel, P. Kolari, J.-M. Limousin, and M.-L. Linderson (2018), Towards physiologically meaningful water use efficiency estimates from eddy covariance data, Global Change Biology, 24(2), 694-710, doi:10.1111/gcb.13893

  Comment:
Fluxnet variable(s) used: H_F_MDS