Mean State

Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [W m-2]
Bias [W m-2]
RMSE [W m-2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] -47.1
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] -46.4 0.674 16.0 1.32 0.783 0.378 0.840 0.595
CanESM5 [-] -53.5 -6.38 15.4 0.915 0.671 0.416 0.879 0.595
CESM2 [-] -50.6 -3.45 14.4 0.810 0.756 0.434 0.887 0.628
GFDL-ESM4 [-] -42.9 4.25 14.9 1.40 0.773 0.415 0.837 0.610
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] -46.8 0.357 18.8 0.512 0.696 0.338 0.966 0.584
MeanCMIP6 [-] -48.7 -1.57 11.9 0.913 0.803 0.489 0.879 0.665
MIROC-ESM2L [-] -46.9 0.246 16.3 1.83 0.652 0.413 0.742 0.555
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] -48.8 -1.66 16.4 1.50 0.715 0.378 0.819 0.573
NorESM2-LM [-] -49.8 -2.66 14.0 1.02 0.833 0.430 0.861 0.638
UKESM1-0-LL [-] -49.0 -1.92 14.6 1.32 0.782 0.417 0.852 0.617
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [W m-2]
Bias [W m-2]
RMSE [W m-2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] -54.8
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] -63.1 -8.36 21.3 1.19 0.559 0.324 0.841 0.512
CanESM5 [-] -68.3 -13.6 23.5 1.26 0.479 0.329 0.838 0.494
CESM2 [-] -67.7 -13.0 22.2 1.19 0.470 0.364 0.850 0.512
GFDL-ESM4 [-] -60.2 -5.45 19.8 1.28 0.575 0.350 0.841 0.529
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] -58.9 -4.13 22.2 1.39 0.546 0.310 0.806 0.493
MeanCMIP6 [-] -63.4 -8.68 17.5 1.05 0.555 0.436 0.874 0.575
MIROC-ESM2L [-] -60.9 -6.12 19.3 1.48 0.581 0.369 0.809 0.532
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] -61.0 -6.26 20.2 1.46 0.543 0.347 0.806 0.511
NorESM2-LM [-] -66.7 -11.9 21.8 1.38 0.508 0.359 0.825 0.513
UKESM1-0-LL [-] -65.2 -10.4 21.7 1.23 0.520 0.337 0.841 0.509
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [W m-2]
Bias [W m-2]
RMSE [W m-2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] -83.7
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] -94.0 -10.4 24.1 1.86 0.462 0.344 0.757 0.477
CanESM5 [-] -96.6 -13.0 26.4 0.672 0.464 0.269 0.936 0.485
CESM2 [-] -94.1 -10.4 21.0 1.02 0.517 0.368 0.883 0.534
GFDL-ESM4 [-] -104. -20.7 28.1 0.678 0.259 0.325 0.936 0.461
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] -88.5 -4.81 24.8 2.54 0.680 0.225 0.612 0.436
MeanCMIP6 [-] -94.3 -10.7 18.7 1.02 0.507 0.423 0.883 0.559
MIROC-ESM2L [-] -88.8 -5.10 20.9 1.33 0.437 0.335 0.815 0.480
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] -99.1 -15.5 23.7 1.85 0.368 0.374 0.730 0.461
NorESM2-LM [-] -91.0 -7.39 23.0 1.52 0.523 0.303 0.749 0.469
UKESM1-0-LL [-] -97.2 -13.6 24.2 2.20 0.432 0.310 0.666 0.429
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [W m-2]
Bias [W m-2]
RMSE [W m-2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] -98.7
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] -100. -1.27 23.4 2.88 0.796 0.380 0.487 0.510
CanESM5 [-] -113. -14.0 29.3 3.57 0.562 0.313 0.364 0.388
CESM2 [-] -112. -13.7 24.5 3.57 0.585 0.427 0.364 0.451
GFDL-ESM4 [-] -99.5 -0.812 20.6 3.57 0.817 0.416 0.364 0.503
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] -83.6 15.1 30.1 3.74 0.532 0.337 0.353 0.390
MeanCMIP6 [-] -102. -3.05 19.1 3.74 0.776 0.462 0.353 0.513
MIROC-ESM2L [-] -108. -8.91 24.2 3.57 0.674 0.392 0.364 0.456
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] -91.6 7.08 25.0 4.39 0.619 0.406 0.292 0.431
NorESM2-LM [-] -104. -4.98 23.8 3.57 0.730 0.374 0.364 0.460
UKESM1-0-LL [-] -114. -15.7 26.4 2.88 0.565 0.391 0.487 0.459
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [W m-2]
Bias [W m-2]
RMSE [W m-2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] -43.8
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] -51.1 -7.35 22.1 0.942 0.563 0.274 0.867 0.495
CanESM5 [-] -55.6 -11.8 21.3 1.52 0.501 0.344 0.788 0.494
CESM2 [-] -57.5 -13.7 22.8 1.24 0.444 0.349 0.841 0.496
GFDL-ESM4 [-] -45.1 -1.36 19.3 1.33 0.593 0.348 0.838 0.532
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] -48.2 -4.37 24.1 1.61 0.527 0.260 0.771 0.455
MeanCMIP6 [-] -51.4 -7.60 17.7 1.14 0.551 0.412 0.862 0.559
MIROC-ESM2L [-] -51.2 -7.37 19.8 1.43 0.557 0.358 0.823 0.524
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] -46.8 -3.04 19.6 1.40 0.573 0.326 0.814 0.510
NorESM2-LM [-] -56.7 -12.9 21.4 1.39 0.488 0.352 0.838 0.508
UKESM1-0-LL [-] -52.4 -8.62 22.3 0.918 0.525 0.293 0.883 0.498
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [W m-2]
Bias [W m-2]
RMSE [W m-2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] -56.9
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] -68.8 -11.9 20.2 0.936 0.526 0.413 0.867 0.555
CanESM5 [-] -75.0 -18.0 28.6 1.14 0.418 0.294 0.854 0.465
CESM2 [-] -67.5 -10.6 19.7 0.930 0.532 0.400 0.917 0.562
GFDL-ESM4 [-] -76.4 -19.5 25.5 1.07 0.311 0.359 0.871 0.475
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] -62.9 -5.99 18.5 1.33 0.579 0.426 0.827 0.564
MeanCMIP6 [-] -69.7 -12.8 17.8 0.936 0.469 0.497 0.879 0.586
MIROC-ESM2L [-] -59.5 -2.54 18.2 1.33 0.666 0.416 0.839 0.584
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] -75.8 -18.8 23.9 1.34 0.341 0.419 0.813 0.498
NorESM2-LM [-] -65.0 -8.03 19.2 0.867 0.574 0.392 0.896 0.564
UKESM1-0-LL [-] -73.4 -16.4 22.7 0.936 0.400 0.424 0.887 0.534
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [W m-2]
Bias [W m-2]
RMSE [W m-2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] -32.0
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] -30.6 1.36 17.7 2.64 0.776 0.321 0.587 0.501
CanESM5 [-] -35.2 -3.17 21.1 2.23 0.644 0.310 0.651 0.479
CESM2 [-] -28.5 3.53 20.7 2.44 0.685 0.302 0.622 0.478
GFDL-ESM4 [-] -35.1 -3.16 19.1 2.43 0.580 0.338 0.638 0.473
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] -32.3 -0.265 20.1 1.82 0.652 0.303 0.738 0.499
MeanCMIP6 [-] -33.0 -1.01 16.7 2.03 0.685 0.372 0.724 0.538
MIROC-ESM2L [-] -40.6 -8.57 21.1 2.03 0.527 0.260 0.724 0.443
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] -28.5 3.50 18.2 3.45 0.679 0.315 0.398 0.427
NorESM2-LM [-] -28.1 3.92 19.7 2.63 0.747 0.334 0.587 0.501
UKESM1-0-LL [-] -33.1 -1.10 15.8 2.23 0.718 0.358 0.675 0.527
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [W m-2]
Bias [W m-2]
RMSE [W m-2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] -58.4
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] -70.2 -11.8 21.7 1.06 0.471 0.313 0.884 0.495
CanESM5 [-] -74.7 -16.3 24.8 0.852 0.411 0.312 0.927 0.491
CESM2 [-] -75.6 -17.2 24.2 0.945 0.361 0.342 0.903 0.487
GFDL-ESM4 [-] -64.1 -5.67 18.3 0.972 0.607 0.323 0.899 0.538
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] -65.8 -7.37 21.2 0.923 0.486 0.315 0.881 0.499
MeanCMIP6 [-] -69.7 -11.2 18.0 0.617 0.491 0.422 0.956 0.573
MIROC-ESM2L [-] -65.6 -7.20 18.7 1.21 0.563 0.359 0.859 0.535
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] -66.0 -7.54 19.4 0.920 0.541 0.321 0.909 0.523
NorESM2-LM [-] -76.0 -17.5 24.4 1.23 0.375 0.340 0.867 0.480
UKESM1-0-LL [-] -70.3 -11.8 22.1 1.18 0.480 0.319 0.868 0.497

Temporally integrated period mean

BENCHMARK MEAN
Data not available
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MODEL MEAN
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BIAS
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BIAS SCORE
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RMSE
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RMSE SCORE
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BENCHMARK MAX MONTH
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MODEL MAX MONTH
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DIFFERENCE IN MAX MONTH
Data not available
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SEASONAL CYCLE SCORE
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Spatially integrated regional mean

MODEL COLORS
Data not available
REGIONAL MEAN
Data not available
ANNUAL CYCLE
Data not available
MONTHLY ANOMALY
Data not available
ANNUAL CYCLE
Data not available

All Models

Benchmark
Data not available
Data not available
BCC-CSM2-MR
Data not available
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CanESM5
Data not available
Data not available
CESM2
Data not available
Data not available
GFDL-ESM4
Data not available
Data not available
IPSL-CM6A-LR
Data not available
Data not available
MeanCMIP6
Data not available
Data not available
MIROC-ESM2L
Data not available
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MPI-ESM1.2-HR
Data not available
Data not available
NorESM2-LM
Data not available
Data not available
UKESM1-0-LL
Data not available
Data not available

Data Information

  Title:
FluxNet Tower eddy covariance measurements (Tier 1)

  Version:
2015

  Institutions:
FluxNet, AmeriFlux, AfriFlux, AsiaFlux, ChinaFlux, Fluxnet-Canada, KoFlux, CarboAfrica, CarboEuropeIP, CarboItaly, CarboMont, GreenGrass, OzFlux-TERN, LBA, NECC, ICOS, TCOS-Siberia, and USCCC

  References:
Reichstein, M., D. Papale, R. Valentini, M. Aubinet, C. Bernhofer, A. Knohl, T. Laurila, A. Lindroth, E. Moors, K. Pilegaard, and G. Seufert (2007), Determinants of terrestrialecosystem carbon balance inferred from European eddy covarianceflux sites, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L01402, doi:10.1029/2006GL027880

Lasslop, G., M. Reichstein, D. Papale, A.D. Richardson, A. Arneth, A. Barr, P. Stoy, and G. Wohlfahrt (2010), Separation of net ecosystem exchange into assimilation and respiration using a light response curve approach: critical issues and global evaluation, Global Change Biology, 16, 187-208, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.02041.x

Knauer, J., S. Zaehle, B.E. Medlyn, M. Reichstein, C.A. Williams, M. Migliavacca, M.G. De Kauwe, C. Werner, C. Keitel, P. Kolari, J.-M. Limousin, and M.-L. Linderson (2018), Towards physiologically meaningful water use efficiency estimates from eddy covariance data, Global Change Biology, 24(2), 694-710, doi:10.1111/gcb.13893

  Comment:
Fluxnet variable(s) used: LW_IN_F-LW_OUT