Mean State

Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [W m-2]
Bias [W m-2]
RMSE [W m-2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 64.3
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 50.7 -13.6 25.0 0.635 0.772 0.691 0.953 0.776
CanESM5 [-] 52.9 -11.4 21.0 0.424 0.807 0.724 0.972 0.807
CESM2 [-] 58.4 -5.91 20.1 0.169 0.823 0.722 0.989 0.814
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 52.9 -11.4 21.9 0.466 0.772 0.742 0.969 0.806
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 62.1 -2.14 19.7 0.424 0.874 0.715 0.972 0.819
MeanCMIP6 [-] 56.9 -7.36 17.9 0.424 0.828 0.759 0.972 0.829
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 58.6 -5.68 21.7 0.424 0.838 0.708 0.972 0.806
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 62.8 -1.47 19.9 0.339 0.851 0.722 0.978 0.818
NorESM2-LM [-] 55.7 -8.59 21.6 0.339 0.811 0.714 0.978 0.804
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 55.8 -8.48 20.1 0.424 0.810 0.740 0.972 0.815
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [W m-2]
Bias [W m-2]
RMSE [W m-2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 87.4
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 79.3 -8.02 25.0 0.712 0.748 0.650 0.934 0.745
CanESM5 [-] 80.1 -7.29 24.3 0.635 0.770 0.658 0.939 0.756
CESM2 [-] 80.3 -7.09 23.1 0.532 0.765 0.665 0.950 0.761
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 74.5 -12.9 23.8 0.572 0.733 0.679 0.947 0.759
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 85.9 -1.45 23.7 0.707 0.779 0.646 0.932 0.751
MeanCMIP6 [-] 80.9 -6.41 20.8 0.531 0.776 0.699 0.952 0.781
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 86.1 -1.28 24.8 0.712 0.780 0.646 0.922 0.748
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 85.3 -2.02 23.3 0.578 0.784 0.666 0.941 0.764
NorESM2-LM [-] 80.3 -7.01 23.5 0.552 0.760 0.661 0.948 0.758
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 77.2 -10.1 23.3 0.614 0.745 0.680 0.941 0.761
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [W m-2]
Bias [W m-2]
RMSE [W m-2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 110.
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 107. -2.29 25.6 0.680 0.645 0.615 0.942 0.704
CanESM5 [-] 99.6 -10.1 23.0 0.565 0.690 0.624 0.963 0.725
CESM2 [-] 97.6 -12.1 22.5 0.794 0.672 0.635 0.921 0.716
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 95.6 -14.1 27.0 0.680 0.652 0.663 0.942 0.730
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 103. -6.97 23.1 0.794 0.726 0.617 0.934 0.724
MeanCMIP6 [-] 101. -8.79 23.3 0.680 0.680 0.658 0.942 0.735
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 104. -5.32 23.0 0.109 0.660 0.648 0.993 0.737
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 101. -8.80 27.0 1.02 0.666 0.632 0.920 0.712
NorESM2-LM [-] 100. -9.30 24.2 0.909 0.691 0.623 0.927 0.716
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 92.0 -17.7 26.4 0.794 0.696 0.631 0.934 0.723
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [W m-2]
Bias [W m-2]
RMSE [W m-2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 96.4
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 92.5 -3.84 15.2 1.16 0.854 0.738 0.846 0.794
CanESM5 [-] 84.4 -11.9 15.1 0.729 0.776 0.768 0.935 0.812
CESM2 [-] 91.7 -4.63 16.3 1.16 0.838 0.725 0.846 0.783
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 91.9 -4.46 14.8 1.16 0.850 0.761 0.846 0.805
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 106. 9.65 20.1 0.876 0.718 0.723 0.925 0.772
MeanCMIP6 [-] 93.7 -2.71 12.2 1.16 0.845 0.800 0.846 0.823
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 96.8 0.441 13.3 1.16 0.876 0.758 0.846 0.810
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 101. 4.20 17.9 1.16 0.789 0.741 0.846 0.780
NorESM2-LM [-] 94.6 -1.79 17.1 1.16 0.817 0.731 0.846 0.781
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 81.0 -15.4 19.3 1.16 0.711 0.748 0.846 0.763
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [W m-2]
Bias [W m-2]
RMSE [W m-2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 82.8
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 68.6 -14.2 25.3 0.555 0.764 0.640 0.959 0.751
CanESM5 [-] 74.7 -8.06 24.1 0.570 0.777 0.658 0.955 0.762
CESM2 [-] 72.3 -10.5 22.8 0.447 0.773 0.669 0.966 0.769
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 64.5 -18.3 23.9 0.478 0.738 0.673 0.964 0.762
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 78.5 -4.30 24.2 0.586 0.784 0.637 0.954 0.753
MeanCMIP6 [-] 72.5 -10.3 21.7 0.432 0.780 0.687 0.967 0.780
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 78.2 -4.61 26.0 0.586 0.776 0.633 0.954 0.749
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 77.0 -5.81 24.1 0.385 0.779 0.669 0.970 0.772
NorESM2-LM [-] 72.8 -10.0 23.0 0.462 0.771 0.663 0.965 0.765
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 69.2 -13.6 23.8 0.493 0.748 0.682 0.960 0.768
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [W m-2]
Bias [W m-2]
RMSE [W m-2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 117.
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 138. 20.5 35.9 4.54 0.432 0.297 0.161 0.297
CanESM5 [-] 166. 49.2 54.9 1.51 0.138 0.346 0.844 0.419
CESM2 [-] 134. 16.6 29.8 0.492 0.506 0.347 0.968 0.542
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 151. 34.0 41.9 0.492 0.252 0.425 0.968 0.517
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 146. 28.4 32.1 0.492 0.314 0.448 0.968 0.545
MeanCMIP6 [-] 157. 39.8 44.7 0.492 0.200 0.448 0.968 0.516
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 158. 40.4 47.0 2.52 0.195 0.386 0.628 0.399
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 163. 45.4 55.5 0.492 0.160 0.323 0.968 0.444
NorESM2-LM [-] 145. 27.6 39.2 1.51 0.325 0.339 0.844 0.462
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 145. 27.8 32.8 0.492 0.322 0.442 0.968 0.544
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [W m-2]
Bias [W m-2]
RMSE [W m-2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 129.
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 144. 14.2 32.3 1.20 0.571 0.450 0.857 0.582
CanESM5 [-] 134. 4.42 29.4 1.88 0.726 0.462 0.733 0.596
CESM2 [-] 134. 4.99 28.3 1.01 0.601 0.491 0.854 0.610
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 123. -6.57 27.3 1.20 0.596 0.483 0.837 0.600
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 137. 7.30 31.7 1.69 0.557 0.424 0.741 0.536
MeanCMIP6 [-] 134. 5.17 25.5 1.11 0.655 0.524 0.860 0.641
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 140. 11.0 31.0 2.22 0.598 0.466 0.640 0.543
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 138. 8.63 32.2 1.69 0.631 0.428 0.753 0.560
NorESM2-LM [-] 136. 6.43 30.3 1.20 0.589 0.447 0.830 0.578
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 131. 1.36 28.7 1.45 0.596 0.479 0.794 0.587
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [W m-2]
Bias [W m-2]
RMSE [W m-2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 27.7
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 0.916 -26.8 32.6 0.874 0.566 0.554 0.899 0.643
CanESM5 [-] 10.2 -17.5 23.3 0.729 0.676 0.547 0.935 0.676
CESM2 [-] 13.0 -14.6 24.0 0.583 0.703 0.551 0.944 0.687
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 23.3 -4.36 26.8 0.293 0.755 0.483 0.964 0.671
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 17.8 -9.88 27.0 0.729 0.750 0.525 0.908 0.677
MeanCMIP6 [-] 14.0 -13.7 21.4 0.293 0.723 0.570 0.964 0.707
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 17.4 -10.3 27.1 0.293 0.726 0.486 0.964 0.666
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 15.7 -12.0 24.8 0.293 0.810 0.534 0.964 0.711
NorESM2-LM [-] 9.41 -18.3 26.0 0.438 0.698 0.551 0.954 0.688
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 17.5 -10.2 18.7 0.293 0.730 0.580 0.964 0.714
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [W m-2]
Bias [W m-2]
RMSE [W m-2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 88.5
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 81.6 -6.87 21.8 0.551 0.818 0.730 0.963 0.810
CanESM5 [-] 79.9 -8.60 24.4 0.318 0.806 0.714 0.979 0.803
CESM2 [-] 81.0 -7.43 23.4 0.485 0.812 0.718 0.966 0.804
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 75.4 -13.1 22.7 0.451 0.771 0.751 0.968 0.810
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 86.9 -1.59 22.0 0.584 0.846 0.722 0.959 0.812
MeanCMIP6 [-] 81.9 -6.53 19.1 0.418 0.824 0.766 0.972 0.832
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 88.4 -0.108 23.0 0.468 0.854 0.711 0.969 0.812
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 86.6 -1.92 19.8 0.401 0.848 0.745 0.971 0.828
NorESM2-LM [-] 80.6 -7.85 22.2 0.368 0.812 0.734 0.976 0.814
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 78.0 -10.5 22.5 0.485 0.793 0.742 0.966 0.811

Temporally integrated period mean

BENCHMARK MEAN
Data not available
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MODEL MEAN
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BIAS
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BIAS SCORE
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RMSE
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RMSE SCORE
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BENCHMARK MAX MONTH
Data not available
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MODEL MAX MONTH
Data not available
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DIFFERENCE IN MAX MONTH
Data not available
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SEASONAL CYCLE SCORE
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Spatially integrated regional mean

MODEL COLORS
Data not available
REGIONAL MEAN
Data not available
ANNUAL CYCLE
Data not available
MONTHLY ANOMALY
Data not available
ANNUAL CYCLE
Data not available

All Models

Benchmark
Data not available
Data not available
BCC-CSM2-MR
Data not available
Data not available
CanESM5
Data not available
Data not available
CESM2
Data not available
Data not available
GFDL-ESM4
Data not available
Data not available
IPSL-CM6A-LR
Data not available
Data not available
MeanCMIP6
Data not available
Data not available
MIROC-ESM2L
Data not available
Data not available
MPI-ESM1.2-HR
Data not available
Data not available
NorESM2-LM
Data not available
Data not available
UKESM1-0-LL
Data not available
Data not available

Data Information

  Title:
FluxNet Tower eddy covariance measurements (Tier 1)

  Version:
2015

  Institutions:
FluxNet, AmeriFlux, AfriFlux, AsiaFlux, ChinaFlux, Fluxnet-Canada, KoFlux, CarboAfrica, CarboEuropeIP, CarboItaly, CarboMont, GreenGrass, OzFlux-TERN, LBA, NECC, ICOS, TCOS-Siberia, and USCCC

  References:
Reichstein, M., D. Papale, R. Valentini, M. Aubinet, C. Bernhofer, A. Knohl, T. Laurila, A. Lindroth, E. Moors, K. Pilegaard, and G. Seufert (2007), Determinants of terrestrialecosystem carbon balance inferred from European eddy covarianceflux sites, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L01402, doi:10.1029/2006GL027880

Lasslop, G., M. Reichstein, D. Papale, A.D. Richardson, A. Arneth, A. Barr, P. Stoy, and G. Wohlfahrt (2010), Separation of net ecosystem exchange into assimilation and respiration using a light response curve approach: critical issues and global evaluation, Global Change Biology, 16, 187-208, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.02041.x

Knauer, J., S. Zaehle, B.E. Medlyn, M. Reichstein, C.A. Williams, M. Migliavacca, M.G. De Kauwe, C. Werner, C. Keitel, P. Kolari, J.-M. Limousin, and M.-L. Linderson (2018), Towards physiologically meaningful water use efficiency estimates from eddy covariance data, Global Change Biology, 24(2), 694-710, doi:10.1111/gcb.13893

  Comment:
Fluxnet variable(s) used: NETRAD