Mean State

Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [W m-2]
Bias [W m-2]
RMSE [W m-2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 21.4
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 24.0 2.61 16.2 1.55 0.452 0.357 0.787 0.488
CanESM5 [-] 29.2 7.75 16.7 1.34 0.482 0.343 0.813 0.495
CESM2 [-] 21.6 0.212 11.1 1.18 0.612 0.471 0.840 0.599
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 28.7 7.27 18.8 1.39 0.387 0.357 0.813 0.479
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 23.5 2.08 16.3 1.39 0.528 0.369 0.813 0.520
MeanCMIP6 [-] 25.5 4.06 13.2 1.23 0.502 0.422 0.830 0.544
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 22.0 0.597 13.5 1.23 0.572 0.416 0.846 0.562
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 20.5 -0.923 13.3 1.12 0.587 0.440 0.860 0.582
NorESM2-LM [-] 19.3 -2.13 14.4 1.39 0.574 0.385 0.792 0.534
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 30.7 9.26 19.7 1.18 0.349 0.279 0.849 0.439
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [W m-2]
Bias [W m-2]
RMSE [W m-2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 29.1
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 26.4 -2.71 15.3 1.56 0.516 0.432 0.785 0.541
CanESM5 [-] 31.3 2.17 14.7 1.37 0.539 0.424 0.813 0.550
CESM2 [-] 27.9 -1.26 13.4 1.16 0.572 0.449 0.841 0.578
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 33.5 4.32 15.7 1.15 0.502 0.414 0.860 0.548
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 26.2 -2.92 14.8 1.36 0.531 0.435 0.813 0.554
MeanCMIP6 [-] 29.4 0.229 12.5 1.24 0.573 0.489 0.825 0.594
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 25.2 -3.97 13.5 1.36 0.532 0.464 0.814 0.568
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 28.4 -0.718 15.2 1.24 0.501 0.436 0.837 0.552
NorESM2-LM [-] 26.8 -2.33 14.1 1.34 0.557 0.440 0.806 0.561
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 37.0 7.87 17.4 1.17 0.432 0.391 0.848 0.515
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [W m-2]
Bias [W m-2]
RMSE [W m-2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 43.0
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 40.0 -2.97 12.6 1.02 0.654 0.432 0.915 0.608
CanESM5 [-] 45.2 2.17 14.2 1.02 0.434 0.440 0.899 0.553
CESM2 [-] 40.5 -2.51 8.98 0.583 0.658 0.495 0.961 0.652
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 40.6 -2.37 8.44 0.586 0.678 0.540 0.961 0.680
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 37.7 -5.30 10.9 0.876 0.581 0.445 0.908 0.595
MeanCMIP6 [-] 41.1 -1.89 11.3 0.876 0.591 0.501 0.908 0.625
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 39.9 -3.12 16.7 1.31 0.286 0.462 0.853 0.516
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 46.3 3.32 15.0 1.02 0.362 0.464 0.899 0.547
NorESM2-LM [-] 38.2 -4.78 10.8 0.729 0.633 0.442 0.918 0.609
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 53.0 10.0 19.0 0.874 0.252 0.406 0.909 0.493
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [W m-2]
Bias [W m-2]
RMSE [W m-2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 45.3
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 41.1 -4.12 11.2 0.681 0.671 0.516 0.955 0.664
CanESM5 [-] 45.1 -0.199 11.3 0.681 0.791 0.477 0.955 0.675
CESM2 [-] 37.7 -7.59 11.6 0.508 0.612 0.546 0.966 0.667
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 41.5 -3.74 10.2 0.681 0.693 0.582 0.955 0.703
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 34.6 -10.7 13.6 0.508 0.487 0.551 0.966 0.639
MeanCMIP6 [-] 39.9 -5.37 9.53 0.508 0.706 0.600 0.966 0.718
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 37.3 -7.93 11.3 0.511 0.599 0.574 0.966 0.678
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 43.1 -2.17 10.0 0.681 0.693 0.568 0.955 0.696
NorESM2-LM [-] 34.7 -10.6 14.6 0.508 0.489 0.520 0.966 0.624
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 45.5 0.263 8.63 0.681 0.765 0.595 0.955 0.728
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [W m-2]
Bias [W m-2]
RMSE [W m-2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 25.5
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 19.7 -5.79 15.1 1.88 0.546 0.431 0.717 0.531
CanESM5 [-] 23.6 -1.92 14.6 1.88 0.538 0.429 0.714 0.527
CESM2 [-] 23.0 -2.47 15.2 1.68 0.544 0.425 0.732 0.532
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 30.8 5.28 16.0 1.35 0.538 0.414 0.824 0.547
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 22.4 -3.12 15.7 1.88 0.525 0.405 0.714 0.512
MeanCMIP6 [-] 23.8 -1.72 13.6 1.72 0.554 0.482 0.727 0.561
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 20.8 -4.71 14.7 1.67 0.535 0.454 0.748 0.548
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 20.4 -5.12 16.1 1.35 0.521 0.432 0.806 0.548
NorESM2-LM [-] 22.0 -3.56 15.1 2.07 0.541 0.427 0.663 0.515
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 33.8 8.32 19.6 1.61 0.412 0.349 0.752 0.466
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [W m-2]
Bias [W m-2]
RMSE [W m-2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 32.9
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 33.9 0.986 9.25 1.55 0.425 0.366 0.799 0.489
CanESM5 [-] 34.4 1.49 8.47 1.48 0.513 0.364 0.827 0.517
CESM2 [-] 30.5 -2.36 8.69 1.48 0.508 0.360 0.819 0.512
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 39.5 6.63 12.0 1.42 0.320 0.294 0.831 0.435
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 28.8 -4.09 9.63 1.35 0.452 0.380 0.843 0.514
MeanCMIP6 [-] 35.8 2.94 7.42 1.55 0.544 0.428 0.822 0.555
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 29.1 -3.75 6.91 1.62 0.576 0.407 0.806 0.549
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 43.5 10.6 14.1 1.49 0.227 0.335 0.818 0.429
NorESM2-LM [-] 28.9 -3.94 9.17 1.42 0.472 0.405 0.823 0.526
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 43.0 10.1 15.0 1.42 0.226 0.360 0.818 0.441
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [W m-2]
Bias [W m-2]
RMSE [W m-2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 40.5
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 56.3 15.8 48.1 1.02 0.570 0.421 0.889 0.576
CanESM5 [-] 52.8 12.2 32.8 1.02 0.692 0.476 0.889 0.633
CESM2 [-] 43.0 2.45 34.0 0.729 0.645 0.490 0.882 0.627
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 27.8 -12.7 36.2 0.583 0.611 0.429 0.892 0.590
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 45.6 5.05 41.2 0.874 0.643 0.431 0.873 0.594
MeanCMIP6 [-] 42.4 1.88 32.5 0.583 0.675 0.490 0.892 0.637
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 32.5 -8.07 25.9 0.729 0.626 0.522 0.882 0.638
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 50.0 9.52 40.1 0.874 0.536 0.460 0.873 0.582
NorESM2-LM [-] 41.8 1.27 38.5 0.729 0.636 0.471 0.882 0.615
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 48.6 8.10 24.8 0.729 0.671 0.549 0.882 0.663
Download Data
Period Mean (original grids) [W m-2]
Bias [W m-2]
RMSE [W m-2]
Phase Shift [months]
Bias Score [1]
RMSE Score [1]
Seasonal Cycle Score [1]
Overall Score [1]
Benchmark [-] 28.8
BCC-CSM2-MR [-] 23.6 -5.26 12.8 1.53 0.495 0.483 0.793 0.563
CanESM5 [-] 32.1 3.23 14.3 1.02 0.539 0.460 0.870 0.582
CESM2 [-] 28.9 0.0730 12.2 0.714 0.582 0.471 0.923 0.612
GFDL-ESM4 [-] 34.6 5.76 14.3 0.970 0.514 0.437 0.898 0.572
IPSL-CM6A-LR [-] 24.8 -4.06 11.6 1.06 0.554 0.501 0.866 0.605
MeanCMIP6 [-] 29.2 0.356 10.4 0.877 0.601 0.530 0.886 0.637
MIROC-ESM2L [-] 24.4 -4.44 12.8 1.20 0.514 0.493 0.840 0.585
MPI-ESM1.2-HR [-] 27.6 -1.22 12.7 1.22 0.528 0.446 0.839 0.565
NorESM2-LM [-] 29.0 0.162 11.7 0.788 0.585 0.475 0.907 0.610
UKESM1-0-LL [-] 35.7 6.90 14.9 0.785 0.512 0.441 0.932 0.581

Temporally integrated period mean

BENCHMARK MEAN
Data not available
Data not available
MODEL MEAN
Data not available
Data not available
BIAS
Data not available
Data not available
BIAS SCORE
Data not available
Data not available
RMSE
Data not available
Data not available
RMSE SCORE
Data not available
Data not available
BENCHMARK MAX MONTH
Data not available
Data not available
MODEL MAX MONTH
Data not available
Data not available
DIFFERENCE IN MAX MONTH
Data not available
Data not available
SEASONAL CYCLE SCORE
Data not available
Data not available

Spatially integrated regional mean

MODEL COLORS
Data not available
REGIONAL MEAN
Data not available
ANNUAL CYCLE
Data not available
MONTHLY ANOMALY
Data not available
ANNUAL CYCLE
Data not available

All Models

Benchmark
Data not available
Data not available
BCC-CSM2-MR
Data not available
Data not available
CanESM5
Data not available
Data not available
CESM2
Data not available
Data not available
GFDL-ESM4
Data not available
Data not available
IPSL-CM6A-LR
Data not available
Data not available
MeanCMIP6
Data not available
Data not available
MIROC-ESM2L
Data not available
Data not available
MPI-ESM1.2-HR
Data not available
Data not available
NorESM2-LM
Data not available
Data not available
UKESM1-0-LL
Data not available
Data not available

Data Information

  Title:
FluxNet Tower eddy covariance measurements (Tier 1)

  Version:
2015

  Institutions:
FluxNet, AmeriFlux, AfriFlux, AsiaFlux, ChinaFlux, Fluxnet-Canada, KoFlux, CarboAfrica, CarboEuropeIP, CarboItaly, CarboMont, GreenGrass, OzFlux-TERN, LBA, NECC, ICOS, TCOS-Siberia, and USCCC

  References:
Reichstein, M., D. Papale, R. Valentini, M. Aubinet, C. Bernhofer, A. Knohl, T. Laurila, A. Lindroth, E. Moors, K. Pilegaard, and G. Seufert (2007), Determinants of terrestrialecosystem carbon balance inferred from European eddy covarianceflux sites, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L01402, doi:10.1029/2006GL027880

Lasslop, G., M. Reichstein, D. Papale, A.D. Richardson, A. Arneth, A. Barr, P. Stoy, and G. Wohlfahrt (2010), Separation of net ecosystem exchange into assimilation and respiration using a light response curve approach: critical issues and global evaluation, Global Change Biology, 16, 187-208, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.02041.x

Knauer, J., S. Zaehle, B.E. Medlyn, M. Reichstein, C.A. Williams, M. Migliavacca, M.G. De Kauwe, C. Werner, C. Keitel, P. Kolari, J.-M. Limousin, and M.-L. Linderson (2018), Towards physiologically meaningful water use efficiency estimates from eddy covariance data, Global Change Biology, 24(2), 694-710, doi:10.1111/gcb.13893

  Comment:
Fluxnet variable(s) used: SW_OUT